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Perennial herb, shrub, [tree], generally rhizomed, caudexed or not, glabrous, glaucous, or hairy. Stem: spreading to erect, branched or not. Leaf: simple, 1–3-ternate, or pinnately compound, basal and cauline, generally alternate, deciduous or evergreen, petioled, stipuled. Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, or panicle, scapose, terminal, or axillary. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals 6–18 or 0, generally in whorls of 3; petals generally 6, in 2 whorls of 3, or 0; stamens 6–12(13), free or fused at base, in 2 whorls or not, anthers dehiscent by flap-like valves or longitudinal slits; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovules generally 1–10, style 1 or 0, stigma flat or spheric. Fruit: berry, capsule, achene [follicle].
16 genera, ± 670 species: temperate, tropics worldwide; some cultivated (Berberis, Epimedium, Nandina (heavenly bamboo), Vancouveria). [Wang 2007 Syst Bot 32:731–742] Lower sepals sometimes called "bracteoles," inner petals "staminodes". —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Ernst 1964 J Arnold Arbor 45:1–35]
Key to Berberidaceae
Perennial herb, rhizomes extensive, scales brown. Stem: 0. Leaf: basal, long-petioled, 2–3-ternate; leaflet blades ovate to ± cordate, lobes 3, shallow, teeth 0 or shallow. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle, ± scapose, open, long-peduncled; flowers spreading to pendent. Flower: sepals generally 12–15, 8–9 mm, outer 6–9 << inner 6, bract-like, deciduous, inner petal-like, persistent, in age reflexed; petals 6, < inner sepals, reflexed from base, distally glandular; stamens generally 6, held against ovary, style, anther valves flap-like, pointed tipward; ovules 2–10, style 1, < ovary, persistent, beak-like in fruit, stigma cup-like. Fruit: capsule, 2-valved, generally elliptic. Seed: with oily body for ant dispersal.Key to Vancouveria
3 species: temperate western North America. (Captain George Vancouver, British explorer, 1757–1798) [Zhang 2007 Syst Bot 32:81–92] Pedicel appears to arise from inside flower, from tip instead of base, yielding an upside-down or "inside-out" flower.
Unabridged references: [Stearn 1938 J Linn Soc Bot 51:409–535]
Leaf: deciduous in fruit, 8–27 cm, adaxially glabrous, abaxially sparse-hairy; petiole generally glabrous, in age straw-colored. Inflorescence: ± raceme, branched below or not; axis, pedicels glabrous. Flower: outer sepals 2–4 mm, inner 5–7 mm; petals 4–6 mm, white, tip strongly reflexed, ± hood-like; filaments red-glandular. Fruit: body 8–10(15) mm, short glandular-hairy.
2n=12. Conifer forest; < 1900 m. North Coast, w Klamath Ranges, n Outer North Coast Ranges; to western Washington. May–Jul [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Vancouveria chrysantha
Next taxon: Vancouveria planipetala
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 29 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Vancouveria, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47782, accessed on Jul 29 2015
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© 2005 Jerry Murray
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Vancouveria hexandra|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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