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VALERIANACEAE VALERIAN FAMILY

Abigail J. Moore & Lauramay T. Dempster, except as noted

Annual, perennial herb, occasionally strongly scented, odor generally unpleasant. Leaf: simple to pinnately lobed or compound; petioles generally sheathing; basal ± whorled; cauline opposite, petioled to sessile. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, or head-like, generally ± dense. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx fused to ovary tip, limb 0 or lobes generally 5–15, coiled inward, plumose in age, pappus-like, spreading in fruit; corolla radial to 2-lipped, lobes generally 5, throat generally > lobes, > tube, base generally spurred or swollen, tube slender, long or short; stamens generally 1–3, fused to petals; ovary inferior, chamber generally 1, or occasionally 3 but 2 empty or vestigial. Fruit: achene, smooth, ribbed, or winged.
± 17 genera, 300 species: generally temperate, worldwide except Australia. Some species cultivated (Centranthus), some medicinal (Valeriana). [Bell & Donoghue 2005 Organisms Diversity Evol 5:147–159] —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Valerianaceae

VALERIANELLA CORN SALAD

Abigail J. Moore

Annual. Stem: erect, equally, repeatedly forked. Leaf: basal and cauline, generally simple, entire to toothed. Inflorescence: cymes, dense, terminal, peduncled, generally paired, subtended by involucre-like ring of bracts. Flower: calyx generally 0; corolla funnel-shaped, lobes unequal, throat ± swollen at base; stamens 3; ovary (2)3-chambered, 1 chamber fertile, others empty or occasionally fused into 1. Fruit: ± compressed, grooved lengthwise.
± 80 species: Eurasia, northern Africa. (Latin: diminutive of Valeriana) [Bell 2007 Molec Phylogen Evol 44:929–941]

Key to Valerianella

V. locusta (L.) Betcke
NATURALIZED
Stem: 1–4.5 dm, sparsely hairy; hairs pointed down. Leaf: 0.5–3 cm; proximal petioled; distal ± sessile; blade obovate to narrowly oblong, entire, distal occasionally dentate. Flower: corolla 1.5–2 mm, white, lobes ± blue. Fruit: 2–3 mm, 1.5–2 mm wide.
2n=16. Moist, generally shaded sites; < 1400 m. Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada, n Sacramento Valley, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area; to Montana, Utah; eastern Canada, eastern United States; native to Europe. [Valerianella olitoria (L.) Pollich] Cult for edible leaves. Apr–Jun [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 30 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Valerianella, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47754, accessed on Sep 30 2014

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click for enlargement Valerianella locusta
See CalPhotos for additional images
2007 Dr. Amadej Trnkoczy

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Valerianella locusta Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.