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Annual, perennial herb, occasionally strongly scented, odor generally unpleasant. Leaf: simple to pinnately lobed or compound; petioles generally sheathing; basal ± whorled; cauline opposite, petioled to sessile. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, or head-like, generally ± dense. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx fused to ovary tip, limb 0 or lobes generally 5–15, coiled inward, plumose in age, pappus-like, spreading in fruit; corolla radial to 2-lipped, lobes generally 5, throat generally > lobes, > tube, base generally spurred or swollen, tube slender, long or short; stamens generally 1–3, fused to petals; ovary inferior, chamber generally 1, or occasionally 3 but 2 empty or vestigial. Fruit: achene, smooth, ribbed, or winged.
± 17 genera, 300 species: generally temperate, worldwide except Australia. Some species cultivated (Centranthus), some medicinal (Valeriana). [Bell & Donoghue 2005 Organisms Diversity Evol 5:147–159] —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Valerianaceae
Annual. Stem: erect, equally, repeatedly forked. Leaf: basal and cauline, generally simple, entire to toothed. Inflorescence: cymes, dense, terminal, peduncled, generally paired, subtended by involucre-like ring of bracts. Flower: calyx generally 0; corolla funnel-shaped, lobes unequal, throat ± swollen at base; stamens 3; ovary (2)3-chambered, 1 chamber fertile, others empty or occasionally fused into 1. Fruit: ± compressed, grooved lengthwise.Key to Valerianella
± 80 species: Eurasia, northern Africa. (Latin: diminutive of Valeriana) [Bell 2007 Molec Phylogen Evol 44:929–941]
Stem: 1–4.5 dm, sparsely hairy; hairs pointed down. Leaf: 0.5–3 cm; proximal petioled; distal ± sessile; blade obovate to narrowly oblong, entire, distal occasionally dentate. Flower: corolla 1.5–2 mm, white, lobes ± blue. Fruit: 2–3 mm, 1.5–2 mm wide.
2n=16. Moist, generally shaded sites; < 1400 m. Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada, n Sacramento Valley, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area; to Montana, Utah; eastern Canada, eastern United States; native to Europe. [Valerianella olitoria (L.) Pollich] Cult for edible leaves. Apr–Jun [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Valerianella carinata
Next taxon: Verbenaceae
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 30 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Valerianella, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47754, accessed on Jul 30 2014
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