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Annual, perennial herb, occasionally strongly scented, odor generally unpleasant. Leaf: simple to pinnately lobed or compound; petioles generally sheathing; basal ± whorled; cauline opposite, petioled to sessile. Inflorescence: cyme, panicle, or head-like, generally ± dense. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx fused to ovary tip, limb 0 or lobes generally 5–15, coiled inward, plumose in age, pappus-like, spreading in fruit; corolla radial to 2-lipped, lobes generally 5, throat generally > lobes, > tube, base generally spurred or swollen, tube slender, long or short; stamens generally 1–3, fused to petals; ovary inferior, chamber generally 1, or occasionally 3 but 2 empty or vestigial. Fruit: achene, smooth, ribbed, or winged.
± 17 genera, 300 species: generally temperate, worldwide except Australia. Some species cultivated (Centranthus), some medicinal (Valeriana). [Bell & Donoghue 2005 Organisms Diversity Evol 5:147–159] —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Valerianaceae
[Annual] perennial herb from rhizome or short underground caudex, glabrous to soft-hairy. Stem: generally erect, 1–several. Leaf: basal simple to pinnately lobed or compound, tapered to petiole; cauline ± sessile to ± clasping, pinnately lobed to compound, distal lobe generally > others. Inflorescence: cyme, clustered, ± dense to open, terminal or axillary. Flower: calyx lobes 5–15, rolled inward, plumose in age, spreading, persistent in fruit; corolla ± funnel-shaped, white to pink, lobes ± equal, throat >> tube, occasionally swollen near base, tube slender, occasionally obscured by swollen throat; stamens 3; ovary ± 1-chambered. Fruit: generally compressed, generally 6-veined vertically.Key to Valeriana
± 200 species: temperate worldwide except Australia. (Latin: strength, from use in folk medicine, or after Valerian, a Roman emperor) [Bell & Donoghue 2005 Organisms Diversity Evol 5:147–159]
Plants ± glabrous to short-hairy. Stem: 2.5–5 dm. Leaf: 2–13 cm; basal simple or compound, occasionally deeply 3–5-lobed, terminal lobe > lateral lobes, blade or terminal lobe ovate-obovate, obtuse to rounded; cauline generally 3–9-lobed, lobe margin entire, finely dentate or few-toothed, terminal lobe acute to rounded. Flower: bisexual; corolla 3–4.5 mm, cream-white, lobes ± < throat. Fruit: 4–6 mm, ± ovoid.
Moist places, conifer forest; 1500–3700 m. Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau, East of Sierra Nevada (except White and Inyo Mountains); Oregon, Nevada. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Valeriana capitata subsp. californica (A. Heller) F.G. Mey.]
Previous taxon: Valeriana
Next taxon: Valeriana occidentalis
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Valeriana, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47732, accessed on Nov 23 2014
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© 2003 Michael Charters
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Valeriana californica|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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