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Martin F. Wojciechowski, except as noted

Annual to tree. Leaf: generally alternate, generally compound, generally stipuled, generally entire, pinnately veined Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, umbel or head; or flowers 1–few in axils. Flower: generally bisexual, generally bilateral; hypanthium 0 or flat to tubular; sepals generally 5, generally fused; petals generally 5, free, fused, or lower 2 ± united into keel (see 3, Key to Groups, for banner, wings); stamens 10 or many (or [1], 5, 6, 7, 9), free or fused or 10 with 9 filaments at least partly fused, 1 (uppermost) free; pistil 1, ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, ovules 1–many, style, stigma 1. Fruit: legume, including a stalk-like base (above receptacle) or not. Seed: 1–many, often ± reniform, generally hard, smooth.
± 730 genera, 19400 species: worldwide; with grasses, requisite in agriculture, most natural ecosystems. Many cultivated, most importantly Arachis, peanut; Glycine, soybean; Phaseolus, beans; Medicago, alfalfa; Trifolium, clovers; many orns. [Lewis et al. (eds) 2005 Legumes of the World. RBG, Kew] Unless stated otherwise, fruit length including stalk-like base, number of 2° leaflets is per 1° leaflet. Upper suture of fruit adaxial, lower abaxial. Anthyllis vulneraria L. evidently a waif, a contaminant of legume seed from Europe. Laburnum anagyroides Medik., collected on Mount St. Helena in 1987, may be naturalized. Ceratonia siliqua L., carob tree (Group 2), differs from Gleditsia triacanthos L. in having evergreen (vs deciduous) leaves that are 1-pinnate (vs 1-pinnate on spurs on old stems, 2-pinnate on new stems) with 2–5(8) (vs 7–17) 1° leaflets, commonly cultivated, now naturalized in southern California. Aeschynomene rudis Benth. <Noxious weed>, Halimodendron halodendron (Pall.) Voss <Noxious weed> (possibly extirpated), Lens culinaris Medik. are agricultural weeds. Caragana arborescens Lam. only cultivated. Ononis alopecuroides L. <Noxious weed>, Sphaerophysa salsula (Pall.) DC. <Noxious weed> all evidently extirpated. Cercidium moved to Parkinsonia; Chamaecytisus to Cytisus; Psoralidium lanceolatum to Ladeania. —Scientific Editors: Martin F. Wojciechowski, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Fabaceae


David Seigler & John E. Ebinger

Shrub, tree, armed with stipular spines, prickles 0. Leaf: even-2-pinnate, generally alternate, generally deciduous; petiole, main axis generally with raised glands. Inflorescence: head [spike], generally 1 (or in raceme, panicle). Flower: radial; sepals, petals in 4–5, inconspicuous; stamens many, conspicuous, exserted, free; ovary simple. Fruit: dehiscent or not, flat or ± cylindric. Seed: rarely arilled.
± 160 species: tropics, subtropics. (Rev. G.H. Vachell) [Seigler & Ebinger 2005 Phytologia 87:139–178]
Unabridged references: [Ebinger et al. 2002 Southwestern California Naturalist 47:86–91]

V. farnesiana (L.) Wight & Arn. SWEET ACACIA
Shrub, small tree < 8 m; stipular spines 7–30(50) mm, straight, white in age. Stem: twig ± ridged, ± hairy. Leaf: clustered on short-shoot or not, deciduous, < 5 cm; petiole 3–16 mm, ± hairy, gland present; 1° leaflets 2–6 pairs, 6–33 mm; 2° leaflets 8–19 pairs, 1.6–6.3 mm, 0.5–1.7 mm wide, oblong. Inflorescence: head, generally 1–3 per axil, also clustered with leaves on short-shoots, stalked, < leaf. Flower: bright yellow to dull orange. Fruit: indehiscent, 9–18 mm wide, ± straight, cylindric, leathery, dark brown, glabrous. Seed: ± embedded in a sweet pulp. Introduced in tropics, subtropics worldwide, often a troublesome, invasive weed. Cult in southern Europe for flower oils used in perfumes. [Online Interchange]

Key to Vachellia farnesiana

Previous taxon: Vachellia
Next taxon: Vachellia farnesiana var. farnesiana


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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 25 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Vachellia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 25 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Vachellia farnesiana Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.