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ERICACEAE HEATH FAMILY

Gary D. Wallace, except as noted

Perennial herb, shrub, tree. Stem: bark often peeling distinctively. Leaf: simple or 0, generally cauline, alternate, opposite (whorled), evergreen or deciduous, often leathery, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, cyme, or flowers 1, terminal or axillary, generally bracted; pedicel often with 2 bractlets. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial, bell-shaped, cylindric, or urn-shaped; sepals generally (0)4–5, generally free; petals generally (0)4–5, free or fused; stamens (2–5)8–10, free, filaments rarely appendaged, anthers dehiscing by pores or slits, awns 0 or 2(4), seemingly abaxial, reduced or elongate, generally curved; nectary generally present at ovary base, generally disk-like; ovary superior or inferior, chambers generally 1–5, placentas axile or parietal, ovules 1–many per chamber, style 1, stigma head- to funnel-like or lobed. Fruit: capsule, drupe, berry. Seed: generally many, winged or not.
± 100 genera, 3000 species: generally worldwide except deserts; some cultivated, especially Arbutus, Arctostaphylos, Rhododendron, Vaccinium. [Kron et al. 2002 Bot Rev 68:335–423] Monophyletic only if Empetraceae included, as treated here. Ledum included in Rhododendron. Non-green plants obtain nutrition from green plants through fungal intermediates. —Scientific Editors: Gary D. Wallace, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Ericaceae

VACCINIUM BLUEBERRY, HUCKLEBERRY
Shrub, [tree] glabrous to hairy, rhizomed or not, burls generally 0. Stem: trailing to erect. Leaf: cauline, alternate. Inflorescence: raceme or flowers 1, bracted; bud scales present; bractlets generally 2. Flower: sepals 4–5, 2/3 to fully fused; corolla cylindric to urn- or cup-shaped, petals generally 4–5, ± 2/3 fused, generally white; stamens 8 or 10, filaments generally glabrous, anthers elongate, awned or not, dehiscing by pores on small tubes; ovary inferior, chambers 4–5, or appearing 10 by intrusion of ovary wall, placentas axile, stigma head-like. Fruit: berry. Seed: generally many.
400+ species: temperate northern hemisphere, tropical mountains, Africa. (Latin: for Vaccinium myrtillus L.)
Unabridged references: [Vander Kloet 1988 The genus Vaccinium in North America]
Unabridged note: Vaccinium oxycoccos L. reported from California; records lacking.

Key to Vaccinium

V. cespitosum Michx. DWARF BILBERRY
NATIVE
Shrub, generally hairy, rhizomed. Stem: prostrate to erect, < 5 dm, generally rooting; twigs not or weakly angled, ± green, youngest generally puberulent or glandular. Leaf: deciduous, generally 1–3 cm, generally oblong or obovate to elliptic, generally thin, not membranous, minutely serrate, abaxially generally glandular, base tapered, tip seldom acute. Inflorescence: flowers 1 in axils of lowest leaves of youngest shoots; pedicel not jointed to flower, bractlets 0. Flower: calyx lobes ± 0; corolla < 6 mm, narrowly urn-shaped, ± white to ± pink; anthers awned. Fruit: < 9 mm wide, generally blue-glaucous.
2n=24. Margins of wet meadows, mountain slopes; < 3400 m. Northwestern California (except Inner North Coast Ranges), High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, Warner Mountains; to Alaska, Montana; also northeastern United States, adjacent Canada. [Vaccinium caespitosum, orth. var.] May–Jul [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Vaccinium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47650, accessed on Jul 23 2014

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click for enlargement Vaccinium cespitosum
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2011 Neal Kramer

Bioregions in which Vaccinium cespitosum occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.