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LENTIBULARIACEAE BLADDERWORT FAMILY

Barry A. Rice

Annual, perennial herb, carnivorous, of moist or aquatic habitats. Stem: caudex or stolon, then often with thread-like branches. Leaf: simple, in rosette, or simple or dissected, emerging from caudex or stolon, with minute, carnivorous bladders ± throughout. Inflorescence: raceme or 1-flowered, scapose. Flower: bisexual; calyx lips 2[4], upper 3-lobed, lower 2-lobed, or lips unlobed; corolla 2-lipped, spurred at base, lower lip flat or arched upward, blocking throat or not; stamens 2, epipetalous; ovary superior, chamber 1, placenta generally free-central; stigma unequally 2-lobed, ± sessile. Fruit: capsule, round, 2-valved, circumscissile, or irregularly dehiscent. Seed: generally many, small.
3 genera, 330 species: worldwide, especially tropics. [Rice 2006 Growing Carnivorous Plants. Timber Press] —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Lentibulariaceae

UTRICULARIA BLADDERWORT
Carnivorous by bladders (here treated as modified leaves), into which small organisms are sucked when hairs at opening are triggered [epiphytic]. Stem: submersed or subterranean shoots [rarely caudex]; some aquatic species produce 2 kinds of stems, green (in water or at surface; leaves with flattened or thread-like segments; bladders 0–few) and white (generally buried in substrate; leaves 0; bladders many), the latter not always present in poor collections. Leaf: simple or generally dissected into narrow segments, alternate on stolon, margins often with bristles (visible at 10–30×). Inflorescence: raceme or 1-flowered, emergent; scape slender or wiry, bracts present. Flower: calyx lips 2[4], unlobed; corolla yellow [or not], with red-brown streaks or not, upper lip ± entire, lower entire or 3-lobed, spurred; rarely cleistogamous. Fruit: capsule.
± 220 species: worldwide, especially tropics, Australia. (Latin: little bag, from bladders) [Taylor 1989 Kew Bull Add Ser 14:1–724] Size variable, often unreliable for identification; distinction between stems, leaves uncertain. Glands inside bladders consist of 2 pairs of oppositely directed arms, angles of divergence between which used (at 150× or more) to identify fresh or pressed specimens.

Key to Utricularia

U. subulata L.
NATURALIZED
Creeping in wet substrates. Stem: creeping in wet substrates, thread-like, with leaves, bladders; winter buds 0. Leaf: leaves at or above surface, simple, < 20 mm, 1 mm wide, entire, flattened, with bladders or not, tip rounded; marginal bristles 0; petiole narrow. Inflorescence: 1–many-flowered; peduncle 5–25 cm, wiry, 0.3–0.6 mm diam; pedicel 2–10 mm, erect in fruit. Flower: corolla 5–10 mm; lower lip ± 2 × upper, ± = spur; spur narrowly elongate, straight; cleistogamous flowers much reduced, < 2 mm. Fruit: dehiscent by ventral valve. Seed: unwinged.
2n=30. Moist acid wetlands, introduced with other carnivorous plants by horticulturists; < 1200 m. North Coast (Mendocino Co.), possibly elsewhere; eastern United States, Mexico, ± pantropical. [Utricularia cleistogama (A. Gray) Britton] Jun–Sep [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 24 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Utricularia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47619, accessed on Jul 24 2014

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click for enlargement Utricularia subulata
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© 2006 Barry Rice

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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.