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Annual, perennial herb, carnivorous, of moist or aquatic habitats. Stem: caudex or stolon, then often with thread-like branches. Leaf: simple, in rosette, or simple or dissected, emerging from caudex or stolon, with minute, carnivorous bladders ± throughout. Inflorescence: raceme or 1-flowered, scapose. Flower: bisexual; calyx lips 2, upper 3-lobed, lower 2-lobed, or lips unlobed; corolla 2-lipped, spurred at base, lower lip flat or arched upward, blocking throat or not; stamens 2, epipetalous; ovary superior, chamber 1, placenta generally free-central; stigma unequally 2-lobed, ± sessile. Fruit: capsule, round, 2-valved, circumscissile, or irregularly dehiscent. Seed: generally many, small.
3 genera, 330 species: worldwide, especially tropics. [Rice 2006 Growing Carnivorous Plants. Timber Press] —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Key to Lentibulariaceae
Carnivorous by bladders (here treated as modified leaves), into which small organisms are sucked when hairs at opening are triggered [epiphytic]. Stem: submersed or subterranean shoots [rarely caudex]; some aquatic species produce 2 kinds of stems, green (in water or at surface; leaves with flattened or thread-like segments; bladders 0–few) and white (generally buried in substrate; leaves 0; bladders many), the latter not always present in poor collections. Leaf: simple or generally dissected into narrow segments, alternate on stolon, margins often with bristles (visible at 10–30×). Inflorescence: raceme or 1-flowered, emergent; scape slender or wiry, bracts present. Flower: calyx lips 2, unlobed; corolla yellow [or not], with red-brown streaks or not, upper lip ± entire, lower entire or 3-lobed, spurred; rarely cleistogamous. Fruit: capsule.Key to Utricularia
± 220 species: worldwide, especially tropics, Australia. (Latin: little bag, from bladders) [Taylor 1989 Kew Bull Add Ser 14:1–724] Size variable, often unreliable for identification; distinction between stems, leaves uncertain. Glands inside bladders consist of 2 pairs of oppositely directed arms, angles of divergence between which used (at 150× or more) to identify fresh or pressed specimens.
Floating aquatic. Stem: well defined, weakly branched central stolon with leaves, bladders; winter buds 1–2 cm, bristly. Leaf: 15–90 mm, 1–2-parted at base, each part unequally pinnately dissected above; ultimate segments dense, 30–150, thread-like, margin bristles 0.1–0.3 mm; bladders near base larger than those near tip. Inflorescence: 5–20-flowered; peduncle 1–4 dm, stout, 1–3 mm diam; pedicel recurved in fruit. Flower: corolla 1–2 cm; lower lip > upper; cylindric spur ± hooked upward near tip. Fruit: circumscissile. Seed: 4–6-sided, -winged.
2n=±40. Quiet, shallow or deep, rarely flowing, acidic waters; < 2700 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area, San Bernardino Mountains, Great Basin Floristic Province, w Mojave Desert; North America except extreme southeastern, northeastern Mexico, eastern Asia. Utricularia vulgaris L. excluded by recircumscription. Jun–Sep [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: Plants with floating, inflated, radiating branches at peduncle base, deeply 3-lobed lower corolla lip belong to Utricularia inflata Walter, native to and of special concern in eastern United States, troublesome weed in Washington, presently known only from pond in zoo near Fresno but in future expected in wildlands in California.
Previous taxon: Utricularia intermedia
Next taxon: Utricularia minor
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 16 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Utricularia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47607, accessed on Apr 16 2014
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© 2008 George W. Hartwell
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