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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual, perennial herb [to shrub, soft-wooded tree], hairs stinging and not [glabrous]; monoecious or dioecious; wind-pollinated. Leaf: alternate or opposite, generally stipuled, petioled, blade often with translucent, raised dots due to crystals in epidermal cells. Inflorescence: axillary, 1-flowered or head-, raceme-, or panicle-like. Flower: generally unisexual, small, ± green; sepals generally 4–5, free to fused; petals 0. Staminate flower: stamens generally 4–5, opposite sepals, incurved in bud, reflexing suddenly when flower opens. Pistillate flower: ovary 1, superior, chamber 1, style 0–1, stigma 1, generally hair-tufted. Fruit: generally achene.
50 genera, 700 species: worldwide; some cultivated (Boehmeria, ramie; Pilea, clearweed). [Boufford 1997 FNANM 3:400–413] —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Miller 1971 J Arnold Arbor 52:40–68]
Key to Urticaceae
Annual, perennial herb [to shrub], weak, stinging hairs 0 or few to many; monoecious or dioecious. Stem: branched or not, erect, spreading, or decumbent. Leaf: opposite, lanceolate to cordate, toothed, prominently 3–5-veined from base; crystals round to elongate. Inflorescence: head-, raceme-, or panicle-like. Staminate flower: sepals 4, ± free, green, sharp-bristly; stamens 4. Pistillate flower: sepals 4, ± free, outer 2 < inner 2. Fruit: lenticular to deltate, enclosed by 2 inner sepals.Key to Urtica
± 45 species: especially temperate. (Latin: to burn, from stinging hairs)
Unabridged references: [Woodland 1982 Syst Bot 7:282–290]
Perennial herb 5–30 dm, from rhizome, ± erect, stinging hairs few to many, non-stinging 0 to dense, generally shorter. Leaf: blade 6–20 cm, narrow-lanceolate to wide-ovate, base tapered to cordate. Inflorescence: spike-, raceme-, or panicle-like, 1–7 cm, generally > petiole, of staminate or pistillate flowers. Fruit: ovate. Urtica dioica subsp. dioica dioecious, native to Eurasia; naturalized in North America; report from California in FNANM based on an unconfirmed collection. [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Urtica
Next taxon: Urtica dioica subsp. gracilis
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jan 27 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Urtica, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47575, accessed on Jan 27 2015
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© 2003 Michael Charters
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Urtica dioica|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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