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ULMACEAE ELM FAMILY

Alan T. Whittemore

Tree. Leaf: simple, alternate, 2-ranked; veins pinnate; stipules deciduous. Flower: radial; sepals 4–9, free to fused; corolla 0; stamens 4–9, opposite sepals; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovule 1, style branches 2. Fruit: 2-winged nutlet.
7 genera, ± 60 species: temperate to tropics; some cultivated for ornamental (Ulmus, Zelkova), used for wood (especially Ulmus). [Sytsma et al. 2002 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 89:1531–1546] Celtis moved to Cannabaceae. —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Elias 1970 J Arnold Arbor 51:18–40]

ULMUS ELM
Deciduous. Leaf: serrate (or doubly so), base generally oblique, 2° veins straight, parallel, extending to margin, each ending in a tooth; axils of 2° veins generally with prominent tufts of hairs. Inflorescence: umbels or short racemes in leaf axils on old wood; flowers sessile or pedicels 7–17 mm. Flower: bisexual; calyx generally bell-shaped, lobes 4–9; stamens 4–9, exserted; ovary strongly compressed; style divided to base, branches spreading.
± 40 species: northern temperate. Widely cultivated as street trees; flowers, fruit needed for identification.

Key to Ulmus

U. pumila L. SIBERIAN ELM
NATURALIZED
To 25 m; bark deeply ridged, remaining firmly attached, medium gray. Stem: corky outgrowths on branches 0; winter buds dark brown or red-brown, ± spheric to ovoid; inner bud scale margins generally white ciliate. Leaf: 2–8 cm, 1.2–3.5 cm wide, ovate- to lance-elliptic, acute or short-acuminate (acuminate), margins simply or doubly serrate, abaxial surface glabrous or pubescent only on major veins and tufted in vein axils. Inflorescence: flower, fruit before leaves in spring; pedicel ± 0. Fruit: 1–2 cm, 1–1.5 cm wide, ± round (broadly obovate or elliptic), ± white-tan, glabrous except for pubescence on stigmatic surface in notch.
Streambanks, washes, bottomland, roadsides, disturbed areas; 20–1500 m. Sierra Nevada, Southwestern California, Great Basin Floristic Province; native to northern Asia. Mar–Apr [Online Interchange]

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Next taxon: Urticaceae

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Aug 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Ulmus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47484, accessed on Aug 22 2014

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click for enlargement Ulmus pumila
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© 2007 Trent M. Draper

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Ulmus pumila Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.