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Tree. Leaf: simple, alternate, 2-ranked; veins pinnate; stipules deciduous. Flower: radial; sepals 4–9, free to fused; corolla 0; stamens 4–9, opposite sepals; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovule 1, style branches 2. Fruit: 2-winged nutlet.
7 genera, ± 60 species: temperate to tropics; some cultivated for ornamental (Ulmus, Zelkova), used for wood (especially Ulmus). [Sytsma et al. 2002 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 89:1531–1546] Celtis moved to Cannabaceae. —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Elias 1970 J Arnold Arbor 51:18–40]
Deciduous. Leaf: serrate (or doubly so), base generally oblique, 2° veins straight, parallel, extending to margin, each ending in a tooth; axils of 2° veins generally with prominent tufts of hairs. Inflorescence: umbels or short racemes in leaf axils on old wood; flowers sessile or pedicels 7–17 mm. Flower: bisexual; calyx generally bell-shaped, lobes 4–9; stamens 4–9, exserted; ovary strongly compressed; style divided to base, branches spreading.Key to Ulmus
± 40 species: northern temperate. Widely cultivated as street trees; flowers, fruit needed for identification.
To 25 m; bark not ridged, peeling as irregular woody scales 2–8 cm wide, orange-brown where freshly exposed, soon weathering ash-gray. Stem: corky outgrowths on branches 0; winter buds red-brown, short-ovoid or ± spheric, glabrous. Leaf: 2.5–5 cm, 1–2 cm wide, lance-ovate to narrowly elliptic, acute to obtuse, margins obtusely and irregularly simply serrate, abaxial surface glabrous or pubescent only on major veins and tufted in vein axils. Inflorescence: flower, fruit in autumn; pedicel ± 0. Fruit: 1–1.3 cm, 0.6–0.8 cm wide, elliptical to ovate-elliptical, tan to dark red-brown, glabrous except for pubescence on stigmatic surface in notch.
Streams, springs, wetlands, roadsides, disturbed areas; 10–1200 m. Central Coast, Southwestern California, Modoc Plateau, White and Inyo Mountains; to eastern United States; native to eastern Asia. Aug–Oct [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Ulmus minor
Next taxon: Ulmus pumila
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 8 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Ulmus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47482, accessed on Mar 8 2014
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