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Tree. Leaf: simple, alternate, 2-ranked; veins pinnate; stipules deciduous. Flower: radial; sepals 4–9, free to fused; corolla 0; stamens 4–9, opposite sepals; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovule 1, style branches 2. Fruit: 2-winged nutlet.
7 genera, ± 60 species: temperate to tropics; some cultivated for ornamental (Ulmus, Zelkova), used for wood (especially Ulmus). [Sytsma et al. 2002 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 89:1531–1546] Celtis moved to Cannabaceae. —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Elias 1970 J Arnold Arbor 51:18–40]
Deciduous. Leaf: serrate (or doubly so), base generally oblique, 2° veins straight, parallel, extending to margin, each ending in a tooth; axils of 2° veins generally with prominent tufts of hairs. Inflorescence: umbels or short racemes in leaf axils on old wood; flowers sessile or pedicels 7–17 mm. Flower: bisexual; calyx generally bell-shaped, lobes 4–9; stamens 4–9, exserted; ovary strongly compressed; style divided to base, branches spreading.Key to Ulmus
± 40 species: northern temperate. Widely cultivated as street trees; flowers, fruit needed for identification.
To 40 m; bark split into ridges or plates that seldom curve together. Stem: some branches with corky warts or wings; winter buds red-brown to almost black, bluntly short-ovoid or ± spheric, pubescent. Leaf: 5.5–11.3 cm, 3.5–8.3 cm wide, oblong or bluntly elliptical, acuminate or generally short-acuminate, margins double-serrate, abaxial surface pubescent on blade and veins, or glabrous except for tufts in vein axils. Inflorescence: flower, fruit before leaves in spring; pedicels ± 0. Fruit: 1.7–2 cm, 1.1–1.9 cm wide, broadly elliptical or ± round, pale green, glabrous except for pubescence on stigmatic surface in notch.
Spreading by root suckers near old plantings; 10–1000 m. Inner North Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada Foothills, Sacramento Valley, Central Coast, Southwestern California, Sonoran Desert; native to Europe. [Ulmus carpinifolia Gled.; Ulmus procera Salisb.] Feb–Mar [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Ulmus americana
Next taxon: Ulmus parvifolia
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 12 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Ulmus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47478, accessed on Mar 12 2014
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© 2005 Luigi Rignanese
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