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ULMACEAE ELM FAMILY

Alan T. Whittemore

Tree. Leaf: simple, alternate, 2-ranked; veins pinnate; stipules deciduous. Flower: radial; sepals 4–9, free to fused; corolla 0; stamens 4–9, opposite sepals; ovary superior, chamber 1, ovule 1, style branches 2. Fruit: 2-winged nutlet.
7 genera, ± 60 species: temperate to tropics; some cultivated for ornamental (Ulmus, Zelkova), used for wood (especially Ulmus). [Sytsma et al. 2002 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 89:1531–1546] Celtis moved to Cannabaceae. —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Elias 1970 J Arnold Arbor 51:18–40]

ULMUS ELM
Deciduous. Leaf: serrate (or doubly so), base generally oblique, 2° veins straight, parallel, extending to margin, each ending in a tooth; axils of 2° veins generally with prominent tufts of hairs. Inflorescence: umbels or short racemes in leaf axils on old wood; flowers sessile or pedicels 7–17 mm. Flower: bisexual; calyx generally bell-shaped, lobes 4–9; stamens 4–9, exserted; ovary strongly compressed; style divided to base, branches spreading.
± 40 species: northern temperate. Widely cultivated as street trees; flowers, fruit needed for identification.

Key to Ulmus

U. americana L. AMERICAN ELM
WAIF
To 35 m; bark split into ridges that mostly curve together at their ends. Stem: corky outgrowths on branches 0; winter buds red-brown, conical or narrowly ovoid, ± pubescent. Leaf: 8.6–12.5 cm, 4.2–7 cm wide, elliptical or occasionally oblong, acuminate, generally slenderly so, margins strongly double-serrate, abaxial surface sparsely long-hairy on blade and veins, hairs tufted in vein axils. Inflorescence: flower, fruit before leaves in spring; pedicel 7–17 mm, slender. Fruit: 0.9–1.3 cm, 0.6–0.8 cm wide, elliptical or oblong, tan, margins densely ciliate, surfaces glabrous.
Seeding along disturbed streambanks, or spreading by root suckers near old plantings; 60–700 m. Sacramento Valley, South Coast; native to eastern United States. Feb–Mar [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 1 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Ulmus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47473, accessed on Oct 1 2014

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click for enlargement Ulmus americana
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© 2007 Louis-M. Landry

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Ulmus americana Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.