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PINACEAE PINE FAMILY

J. Robert Haller, Nancy J. Vivrette, & James R. Griffin, except as noted

Shrub, tree, evergreen; monoecious. Stem: young crown conic; twig not grooved, resinous, generally persistent. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, sometimes in bundles or appearing ± 2-ranked, linear or awl-like; base decurrent, woody or not, persistent several years. Pollen cone: generally < 6 cm, not woody, deciduous. Seed cone: generally woody; bracts, scales generally persistent; scale not peltate, fused to or free from subtending bract. Seed: 2, on scale base adaxially.
10 genera, 193 species: generally northern hemisphere; many of great commercial value, supplying > 1/2 of world's timber. —Scientific Editors: Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Thieret 1993 FNANM 2:352–398]

Key to Pinaceae

TSUGA HEMLOCK
Stem: crown conic, top slender, generally nodding; branches ± drooping; bark red-brown; twig with persistent, peg-like leaf bases, hairy or puberulent; bud ovoid. Leaf: 5–25 mm, tapered to a short petiole above persistent base, spreading, ± 2-ranked or not, ± flat, grooved adaxially or not, ridged abaxially. Seed cone: pendent, 1.2–7.5 cm, ovoid to oblong, opening 1st year; stalk ± 0; bract included, free from scale. Seed: plus wing < 2 cm.
2n=24.
10 species: northern hemisphere. (Japanese: hemlock)

Key to Tsuga

T. mertensiana (Bong.) Carrière MOUNTAIN HEMLOCK
NATIVE
Stem: trunk < 35 m, 2.2 m wide, prostrate at timberline; mature bark red- or purple-brown, with narrow grooves between narrow ridges; twig puberulent. Leaf: 10–25 mm, persistent < 7 years, tip rounded.
Subalpine, some scattered in cold areas of red-fir, mixed-conifer forest; 1200–3500 m. Klamath Ranges, High North Coast Ranges, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Modoc Plateau, n East of Sierra Nevada; to Alaska, Montana. [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 25 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Tsuga, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47424, accessed on Oct 25 2014

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click for enlargement Tsuga mertensiana
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1995 Saint Mary's College of California

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Tsuga mertensiana Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.