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Robert E. Preston & Elizabeth McClintock

Annual, perennial herb, ± fleshy, generally ± glabrous; often twining by petioles; roots tuber-like or not. Stem: prostrate. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, peltate [(or not)]; blade << petiole, entire, toothed, lobed, or dissected, veins generally palmate; stipules often 0. Inflorescence: flower generally 1 on long, axillary pedicel. Flower: showy, bisexual, generally bilateral; sepals 5, uppermost (adaxial) generally long-spurred; petals generally 5, clawed, upper 2 unlike lower 3; stamens 8, in 2 whorls, unequal; ovary superior, lobes 3, chambers 3, placentas axile, style 1, >> ovary, 3-parted near tip, stigmas 3. Fruit: separating into 3 generally nut-like, 1-seeded segments (= mericarps).
1 genus, ± 90 species: Mexico to South America; some cultivated. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged note: 2 additional stamens opposite petals ± abortive.

(Greek: trophy, from shield-like leaves) [Andersson & Andersson 2000 Taxon 49:721–736]

Stem: > 1 m. Leaf: petiole 5–25 cm; blade 3–12 cm wide, round to ± reniform, veins palmate. Inflorescence: peduncle < 20 cm. Flower: 2.5–6 cm diam; sepals > 2 cm, ± ovate, ± tan, nectar spur > 3 cm; petals > 4.5 cm, generally orange or yellow with ± orange marks, claws of lower 3 > 1.5 cm, fringed near top. Fruit: > 1.5 cm, > 2 cm wide; segments broadly ovate, deeply lobed.
Disturbed areas, moist or shaded areas in coastal scrub, wooded flats or slopes; < 450 m. North Coast, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast, s Channel Islands; Abundantly cultivated, often naturalized. Originated in cultivation. Mar–Jun [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 29 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Tropaeolum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 29 2015

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click for enlargement Tropaeolum majus
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2004 Nick Kurzenko

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Tropaeolum majus Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.