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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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POACEAE (Gramineae) GRASS FAMILY

James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted

Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]

Key to Poaceae

TRITICUM WHEAT, GOAT GRASS
Annual. Stem: 3–16 dm, generally erect to abruptly bent at base, nodes glabrous or pubescent. Leaf: sheath appendaged; ligule membranous, truncate; blade flat, glabrous or pubescent. Inflorescence: spike-like, spikelets 2-ranked, sessile, 1 per node, lateral to inflorescence axis; axis remaining intact or breaking apart at maturity. Spikelet: 9–16 mm, laterally compressed, glumes 6–12 mm, ± equal, thick, stiff, keeled, 5–11-veined, loosely enclosing lower florets, mucronate, awned or awn 0; florets 3–9; lemmas like glumes, keeled or rounded, toothed, generally awned; palea 2-veined, 2-keeled.
10–20+ species: Mediterranean, western Asia. (Latin: ancient common name for wheat) [Morrison 2007 FNANM 24:268–277]
Unabridged references: [Morrison 2001 Linnean Special Issue 3:65–80]

T. aestivum L.
NATURALIZED
Annual, cespitose. Stem: stout, 6–15 dm. Leaf: appendages claw-like; blade 10–60 cm, 10–15 (20) mm wide. Inflorescence: 6–18 cm, not breaking apart at maturity. Spikelet: 10–15 mm, generally appressed to ascending; glumes 6–12 mm, prominently keeled toward base, 5–9-veined, toothed or awned to 4 cm; lemmas similar, 10–15 mm, generally awned to 12 cm, 5–9-veined.
2n=42. Escaped cereal crop along roadsides and in disturbed places; generally < 500 m. North Coast Ranges, Sacramento Valley, Central Western California, Southwestern California, Desert; North America; native to Near East. The world's most widely planted crop. Apr–Jul [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 31 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Triticum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47380, accessed on Jul 31 2014

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click for enlargement Triticum aestivum
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2004 James M. Andre

Bioregions in which Triticum aestivum occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.