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POACEAE (Gramineae) GRASS FAMILY

James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted

Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]

Key to Poaceae

TRISETUM

Robert E. Preston & Dieter H. Wilken

Annual, perennial herb. Stem: ascending to erect, generally clumped. Leaf: generally basal and cauline; ligule membranous, obtuse to truncate, toothed, tip ciliate or not; blade flat to inrolled. Inflorescence: panicle- to spike-like, open to compact, cylindric to narrowly conic. Spikelet: glumes ± unequal, generally <= lower floret, keeled, acute, lower 1-veined, upper 3-veined; axis stiff- to soft-hairy, generally prolonged behind upper floret, bristly or with vestigial floret; florets 2–3, bisexual, breaking above glumes and between florets (sometimes below glumes); callus short-hairy; lemma ± keeled, tip 2-bristled or not, awned on back near tip or not, awn straight or wavy to bent; palea = or < lemma; ovary glabrous or with short, stiff hairs at tip.
70–75 species: worldwide (except Africa) temperate, subarctic, alpine. (Latin: 3 bristles, from its 3-awned lemma) [Rumely 2007 FNANM 24:744–753] Some species intergrade; needs study in western North America. Trisetum flavescens (L.) P. Beauv. extirpated, last collected in California 1917.
Unabridged references: [Finot et al. 2006 Sida 21:1419–1453]

Key to Trisetum

T. canescens Buckley TALL FALSE OAT
NATIVE
Perennial herb. Stem: 5–8 dm, clumped. Leaf: glabrous, scabrous, or sparsely hairy; ligule 1–4 mm; cauline blade 2–5(8) mm wide. Inflorescence: generally panicle-like, 6–20 cm, narrow, compact to open; lower branches ascending to erect; central axis generally exposed, sparsely hairy. Spikelet: generally on distal 2/3 of lower branches; glumes lanceolate, lower 3–5 mm, upper 6–7 mm, acute; lemma 4–6 mm, awn 6–11 mm; ovary with short, stiff hairs at tip.
2n=28,42. Open to shaded sites, meadows, chaparral, conifer forest; < 2830 m. Northwestern California, High Cascade Range, High Sierra Nevada, Central Western California, San Jacinto Mountains, Modoc Plateau; to Alaska, Montana, Utah. [Trisetum cernuum var. canescens (Buckley) Beal] Some coastal populations with spike-like panicles; apparently intergrades with Trisetum cernuum outside of California. May–Aug [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Trisetum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=47326, accessed on Oct 22 2014

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click for enlargement Trisetum canescens
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2005 Keir Morse

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Trisetum canescens Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.