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Dale W. McNeal, except as noted

Perennial herb, from rhizome or bulb, or rhizomes ending in weakly developed bulbs, scapose or not. Leaf: alternate, whorled, or mostly basal and spirally arranged, deciduous after 1 year or not. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, or flowers 1. Flower: perianth parts 6, in 2 petal-like whorls or of sepals and petals, free or fused below, ± spreading; stamens 6, from perianth, anthers attached at base or near middle; ovary superior or partly inferior, chambers 3, styles 3, persistent. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal or septicidal.
10 genera, 130 species: northern hemisphere. W North America Zigadenus moved to Toxicoscordion. —Scientific Editors: Dale W. McNeal, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Melanthiaceae


Dale W. McNeal & Bryan D. Ness

Rhizome short, thick, spreading to erect. Stem: erect, >=1 per rhizome. Leaf: 3, in 1 whorl subtending flower, sessile or subsessile, ± ovate. Inflorescence: flowers 1 per stem, erect to nodding, stalked or sessile. Flower: bisexual; sepals 3, free, persistent, ± green; petals 3, free, withering, white, ± pink, ± yellow, or purple; stamens 6; ovary chambers 3, styles 3. Fruit: capsule, ± berry-like. Seed: many, ovoid.
± 30–40 species: North America, Asia. (Latin: 3, from leaves) [Farmer 2006 Aliso 22:579–592; Freeman 1975 Brittonia 27:1–62] Trillium rivale moved to Pseudotrillium.

Key to Trillium

T. albidum J.D. Freeman
Stem: 2–6 dm. Leaf: sessile, 7–20 cm, 12–15 cm wide, rounded to obtuse at tip, generally weakly ± brown- or green-spotted. Flower: sessile; odor generally sweet rose-like or ± spicy; sepals spreading, 3–6.5 cm, lanceolate; petals erect to ascending, 4–8 cm, oblanceolate to obovate, white to ± pink, base occasionally ± purple; stamens 15–25 mm, tissue between anther sacs ± green; ovary ± green (± purple). Fruit: green or ± purple, pulpy, juicy.
n=5. Common. Edges of redwood or mixed-evergreen forest, coastal scrub, chaparral, moist canyon slopes, ravine banks; < 2000 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area; to Washington. Feb–Jun [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 25 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Trillium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 25 2015

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click for enlargement Trillium albidum
See CalPhotos for additional images
© 2007 Neal Kramer

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Trillium albidum Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.