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Anita F. Cholewa

Annual, perennial herb, [shrub, tree], generally hairy, often glandular, resin canals appearing as dark dots or streaks on stems, leaves, or flowers. Leaf: simple, alternate, opposite, subopposite, or whorled, petioled or not; stipules 0. Inflorescence: terminal or axillary, flowers 1 or not. Flower: bisexual, radial; parts in [4s] 5s to 7s; calyx deeply lobed, often persistent; corolla lobes generally spreading; stamens epipetalous, opposite corolla lobes; ovary superior, 1-chambered, placenta free-central, style 1, stigma head-like. Fruit: capsule, circumscissile or 5–6-valved [drupe, drupe-like]. Seed: [1]–many.
± 40 genera, 800 species: especially tropics, subtropics some ornamental (Anagallis, Lysimachia). [Lens et al. 2005 Syst Bot 30:163–183] Based on molecular evidence, non-rosette terrestrial members of Primulaceae as treated in TJM (1993) removed to Myrsinaceae. Based on phylogenetic research, all California members of Myrsinaceae have been or need to be transferred to Lysimachia (see 2009 Willdenowia 39:49–54): Anagallis arvensis L. is now Lysimachia arvensis (L.) U. Manns & Anderb., Anagallis minima (L.) E.H.L. Krause is now Lysimachia minima (L.) U. Manns & Anderb., Anagallis monelli L. is now Lysimachia monelli (L.) U. Manns & Anderb., Glaux maritima L. is now Lysimachia maritima (L.) Galasso et al.; and Trientalis europaea L. is now Lysimachia europaea (L.) U. Manns & Anderb.; unfortunately, a combination for Trientalis latifolia Hook. in Lysimachia had not yet been published by the time of this writing. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Källersjö et al. 2000 Amer J Bot 87:1325–1341; Lens et al. 2005 Syst Bot 30:163–183; Oberprieler & Hellwig 2003 Plant Syst Evol 237: 75–85; Stähl & Anderberg, in Kubitzki et al. 2004 Fam Generally Vasc Plant 6: 266–281]
Unabridged note: Recent molecular work has redefined Ericales. As delineated by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (see, non-rosette, terrestrial members of Primulaceae s.l. have been removed from that grouping and inserted in Myrsinaceae. Myrsinaceae, then, is characterized by synapomorphies of dark dots or streaks on stems, leaves, or flowers, short corolla tubes, seeds immersed in the placenta, and – for woody members – wood lacking rays or with only multiseriate rays. Primulaceae, Myrsinaceae, Theophrastaceae, and Maesaceae (a new segregate of tropical trees), now constitute a closely related, monophyletic clade. Lysimachia has been recognized (even by Linnaeus) as a rather complex group with close affinities to other genera (Glaux, for instance, has been shown to be an apetalous sp. of Lysimachia). Phylogenetic research (by Arne A. Anderberg and colleagues in Europe) on this and related genera indicated that they were actually specialized taxa that had evolved within Lysimachia. Shortly after publication of Volume 8 of Flora of North America, the necessary nomenclatural changes were made in Willdenowia (2009)39: 49–54 by Manns and Anderberg. With respect to the California flora, the following names have been changed: Anagallis arvensis L. is now Lysimachia arvensis (L.) U. Manns & Anderb.; Anagallis minima (L.) E.H.L. Krause is now Lysimachia minima (L.) U. Manns & Anderb.; Anagallis monelli L. is now Lysimachia monelli (L.) U. Manns & Anderb.; Glaux maritima L. is now Lysimachia maritima (L.) Galasso, Banfi, & Soldano; and Trientalis europaea L. is now Lysimachia europaea (L.) U. Manns & Anderb. Unfortunatley, Trientalis latifolia Hooker, at one time considered a variety of the northeastern Trientalis borealis Raf. [now L. borealis (Raf.) U. Manns & Anderb.] and as a variety of Trientalis europaea, was not included in Manns & Anderberg's nomenclatural changes, and a new combination for it is needed.

Key to Myrsinaceae

Perennial herb, low, glabrous; roots tuber-like. Stem: erect, simple. Leaf: at base of stem scale-like, others (cauline) well developed, mostly in ± 1 whorl near stem tip. Inflorescence: flowers 1 in axils of few uppermost leaves; pedicels slender. Flower: parts generally in 5s to 7s; sepals ± free, persistent; corolla spreading, ± flat, = or > calyx, generally white or ± pink to rose, lobes free ± to base; filaments fused at base, slender, anthers oblong. Fruit: 5-valved, spheric. Seed: few.
3 species: North America, northern Eurasia. (Latin: 1/3 foot, from height of plant)

Key to Trientalis

T. latifolia Hook.
Stem: 5–30 cm. Leaf: 25–90 mm, 10–50 mm wide, ovate to obovate. Flower: corolla 8–15 mm wide.
Shaded places, especially woodland; < 1400 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n&c Sierra Nevada, Sacramento Valley, Central Western California; to British Columbia. [Trientalis borealis Raf. subsp. latifolia (Hook.) Hultén] Apr–Jul [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Dec 18 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Trientalis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Dec 18 2014

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click for enlargement Trientalis latifolia
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Jo-Ann Ordano 2005 California Academy of Sciences

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Trientalis latifolia Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.