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AIZOACEAE FIG-MARIGOLD or ICEPLANT FAMILY

Nancy J. Vivrette, John Bleck & Wayne R. Ferren, Jr., family description, key to genera

Annual, perennial herb, shrub, generally fleshy. Stem: underground to erect; root fibrous or tuberous. Leaf: generally simple, entire, flat, cylindric, 3-angled, or scale-like, generally cauline, generally opposite; stipules generally 0; blade papillate, pubescent, or generally glabrous, often glaucous. Inflorescence: cyme or 1-flowered, generally terminal. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium present; sepals (3)5(8), often unequal; petals 0 or many in several whorls, free or fused at base, linear; stamens 1–many, free or fused in groups, outer often petal-like; nectary a ring or separate glands; pistil 1, ovary superior to inferior, chambers 1–20, placentas generally parietal, styles 0–20. Fruit: berry, nut, or generally capsule, opening by flaps or circumscissile. Seed: 1–many per chamber, generally ovoid, arilled or not.
130 genera, 2500 species: generally subtropics, especially southern Africa; many cultivated. [Hartmann 2002 Illus Handbook Succulent Plants Aizoaceae A-E (Vol 1) and F-Z (Vol 2). Springer; Vivrette et al. 2003 FNANM 4:75–91] Galenia pubescens (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Druce, a waif, may be naturalizing in southern California. —Scientific Editors: Bruce G. Baldwin, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Ferren et al. 1981 Madroño 28:80–85; Smith 1998 Mesembs of the World. Briza.]
Unabridged note: Disphyma crassifolium (L.) L. Bolus (ovary glands convex, minute-crenate; stigmas dense-plumose; fruit chambers 5; seeds ovate, ± smooth), of tribe Ruschieae, an historical waif in California; Lampranthus coccineus (Haw.) N.E. Br.: (ovary glands fused; fruit chambers 5; seeds pear-shaped, ± black, rough), of Ruschieae, an historical waif or urban weed in California.

Key to Aizoaceae

TRIANTHEMA HORSE-PURSLANE

Wayne R. Ferren, Jr.

Annual [perennial herb, shrub], branched from base, glabrous, hairy, or papillate, ± fleshy. Stem: generally prostrate. Leaf: ± opposite, 2 of pair unequal; stipules papery; blade linear to round, base tapered, margin entire. Inflorescence: generally 1-flowered; bracts 2. Flower: sepals 5, with abaxial mucro just below tip; petals 0; stamens 5–10[20]; ovary superior, chambers 1–2, ovules 1–few, placentas basal, styles 1–2. Fruit: capsule, papery or leathery, circumscissile; lid winged. Seed: reniform, rough, arilled.
20 species: tropics, subtropics, especially Australia. (Greek: 3-flowered)

T. portulacastrum L.
NATIVE
Stem: < 10 dm, in youth with lines of hairs below petioles. Leaf: stipules widened, occasionally ± toothed at base; blade < 4 cm, smaller on twigs, generally = petiole, elliptic to ± round, base tapered, tip often notched. Inflorescence: flower sessile, ± covered by stipule. Flower: sepals 3–5, ± 2.5 mm, lanceolate, ± purple adaxially; ovary chamber 1, stigmas 2. Fruit: 4–5 mm, cylindric, ± curved; wings of lid 2, prominent, erect. Seed: 1.5–2 mm, ridged, red-brown to black.
Uncommon. Moist or seasonally dry wetlands, disturbed areas; < 1000 m. San Joaquin Valley, Desert; to Texas, eastern North America, South America; tropics Old World. Jun–Nov [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 19 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Trianthema, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=46920, accessed on Apr 19 2014

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click for enlargement Trianthema portulacastrum
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2012 Neal Kramer

Bioregions in which Trianthema portulacastrum occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.