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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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Margriet Wetherwax & Dieter H. Wilken, family description, key to genera

Annual, perennial herb, woody vine [shrub], occasionally aquatic. Leaf: generally basal and cauline, alternate or opposite, simple or compound; petioles at base generally flat, occasionally sheathing or stipule-like. Inflorescence: cyme, raceme, panicle, or flowers 1. Flower: generally bisexual, generally radial; sepals 3–6(20), free, early-deciduous or withering in fruit, generally green; petals 0–many, generally free; stamens generally 5–many, staminodes generally 0; pistils 1–many, ovary superior, chamber 1, style 0–1, generally ± persistent as beak, ovules 1–many. Fruit: achene, follicle, berry, ± utricle in Trautvetteria, in aggregate or not, 1–many-seeded.
± 60 genera, 1700 species: worldwide, especially northern temperate, tropical mountains; many ornamental (Adonis, Aquilegia, Clematis, Consolida, Delphinium, Helleborus, Nigella). some highly TOXIC (Aconitum, Actaea, Delphinium, Ranunculus). [Whittemore & Parfitt 1997 FNANM 3:85–271] Taxa of Isopyrum in TJM (1993) moved to Enemion; Kumlienia moved to Ranunculus. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Ranunculaceae


Bruce D. Parfitt & Dieter H. Wilken

Perennial herb from rhizomes; roots generally clustered. Stem: generally 1, erect, simple. Leaf: basal and cauline, few, alternate, simple, round to reniform, deeply palmately lobed. Inflorescence: panicle, ± flat-topped, terminal. Flower: sepals 3–7, petal-like; petals 0; stamens 50–100; pistils 10–16, ovule 1, style persistent, ± hooked or coiled. Fruit: ± utricle; wall papery, shiny, veined or ribbed.
1 sp.: temperate North America, eastern Asia. (E.R. von Trautvetter, Russian botanist, 1809–1889) [Parfitt 1997 FNANM 3: 138–139]

T. caroliniensis (Walter) Vail
Plant 3–1.5 m. Stem: generally glabrous. Leaf: basal 1–2, lobes 5–11, ± wedge-shaped, toothed distally, petiole 15–45 cm; cauline reduced distally on stem, petiole 0–15 cm. Inflorescence: bracts < 2 cm; pedicels 4–10 mm; flowers >= 5. Flower: sepals 2.5–6 mm, early-deciduous, blade widely ovate, cup-like, ± green-white; stamens 5–10 mm, outer filaments flat, width > anthers, inner thread-like. Fruit: 2.5–4.5 mm, 4-angled.
Moist, shaded places, streambanks; 640–2100 m. Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range (uncommon), High Sierra Nevada; to British Columbia, Montana, Wyoming, New Mexico; also eastern United States; eastern Asia. [Trautvetteria caroliniensis var. occidentalis (A. Gray) C.L. Hitchc.] Jul–Aug [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Jan 25 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Trautvetteria, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Jan 25 2015

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click for enlargement Trautvetteria caroliniensis
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2007 Matt Below

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Trautvetteria caroliniensis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.