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EUPHORBIACEAE SPURGE FAMILY

Mark H. Mayfield & Grady L. Webster, except as noted

Annual to shrub, tree [vine, cactus-like succulent]; monoecious or dioecious; sap clear or milky. Stem: generally branched [fleshy or spiny]. Leaf: generally simple, alternate to whorled, generally stipuled, sessile or petioled; blade entire, toothed, or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers solitary or in terminal or axillary cymes, racemes, spikes, or panicles, or (in Euphorbia) 1° inflorescence a compact, flower-like cyathium with much-reduced flowers enclosed within an involucre of fused bracts, cyathia terminal or axillary, 1 or in cyme-like arrays. Flower: unisexual, ± radial; sepals 0 or 2–6, free or fused; petals generally 0(5); stamens 1–many, free or filaments fused; ovary superior, chambers (1)3(4), styles free or fused, undivided, forked, or variously lobed. Fruit: generally capsule that splits into mericarps that then dehisce, releasing seeds. Seed: 1 per chamber; knob-like appendage sometimes present at attachment scar.
217 genera, 6000+ species: ± worldwide especially tropics; some cultivated (Aleurites, tung oil; Euphorbia species; Hevea, rubber; Ricinus). Many species ± highly TOXIC, due primarily to latex, especially if eaten or in contact with skin, eyes. [Yang et al. 2012 Taxon 61:764–789] Eremocarpus moved to Croton, Tetracoccus moved to Picrodendraceae for TJM2; Chamaesyce moved to Euphorbia here (key to genera revised by Thomas J. Rosatti). —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Euphorbiaceae

TRAGIA NOSEBURN
Perennial herb < 0.5 m; hairs stinging, nettle-like; monoecious. Stem: spreading to erect, branched, sometimes twining. Leaf: cauline, alternate; stipules persistent. Inflorescence: raceme, terminal or opposite leaf; staminate flowers distal to pistillate flowers. Staminate flower: sepals [3]4–5; stamens 3–6[50]; nectary 0. Pistillate flower: sepals 5[4–8]; ovary 3-chambered, styles simple, ± fused at base. Fruit: ± spheric. Seed: smooth or ± rough; scar not appendaged.
± 100 species: tropics, warm temperate worldwide. (Tragus, name for Hieronymus Bock, German herbalist, 1498–1554) [Miller & Webster 1967 Rhodora 69:241–305]

T. ramosa Torr. DESERT TRAGIA
NATIVE
Plant rough-hairy. Stem: 1–3 dm. Leaf: stipules 1–4.5 mm, lanceolate to ovate; petiole 2–20 mm; blade 1–2 cm, lanceolate to ovate, base truncate to ± lobed, margin coarsely, sharply toothed. Inflorescence: 0.5–1 cm, ± spreading; pedicels 1–2 mm; staminate flowers 2–4; pistillate flower 1. Staminate flower: sepals 4–5, ± 1 mm, recurved; stamens 3–6, filaments ± flattened. Pistillate flower: sepals 5, 1.5–2 mm; ovary < 2 mm diam, puberulent to finely bristly, styles fused in proximal 1/3. Fruit: 3–4 mm, 6–8 mm wide, depressed-spheric, sparsely and finely bristly. Seed: 2.5–3.5 mm, ± spheric.
Dry, rocky slopes, scrub, pinyon/juniper woodland; 900–1900 m. Desert Mountains; to central United States, Texas, Mexico. [Tragia stylaris Müll. Arg.] Apr–May [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 16 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Tragia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=46884, accessed on Sep 16 2014

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click for enlargement Tragia ramosa
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2005 James M. Andre

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Tragia ramosa Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.