|University of California, Berkeley|
|Directory News Site Map Home|
|Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Perennial, from rhizome or bulb, or rhizomes ending in weakly developed bulbs, scapose or not.
Leaf: alternate, whorled, or mostly basal and spirally arranged, deciduous after 1 yr or not.
Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, or flowers 1.
Flower: perianth parts 6, in 2 petal-like whorls or of sepals and petals, free or fused below, ± spreading; stamens 6, from perianth, anthers attached at base or near middle; ovary superior or partly inferior, chambers 3, styles 3, persistent.
Fruit: capsule, loculicidal or septicidal.
10 genera, 130 species: n hemisphere. W North America Zigadenus moved to Toxicoscordion. —Scientific Editors: Dale W. McNeal, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Key to Melanthiaceae
Key to Toxicoscordion
Stem: ± scapose.
Leaf: ± basal, reduced upward, linear, generally folded, ± curved, entire, deciduous after 1 yr.
Inflorescence: raceme or panicle; flower bracts 1 (or reportedly 2).
Flower: staminate, sterile, or generally bisexual; perianth parts 6, petal-like, free or ± fused to ovary base, white to ± yellow [or not], adaxially with 1 glands near base; stamens 6, free to ± attached to perianth; ovary superior, chambers 3, styles 3.
Fruit: capsule, septicidal.
± 8 species: c US, w North America. (Greek: poison garlic, for poisonous bulb) All taxa highly TOXIC (generally unpalatable) to livestock, humans from alkaloids (especially in bulbs); caused serious illness to some members of Lewis and Clark Expedition. As treated in TJM (1993), Zigadenus polyphyletic, so CA members transferred to Toxicoscordion (Zomlefer & Judd 2002 Novon 12:299–308).
Bulb 30–50 mm, 8–30 mm wide, ovoid; outer coat dark brown to black.
Stem: 20–70 cm, glabrous.
Leaf: 20–50 cm, 6–16 mm wide, scabrous- ciliate.
Inflorescence: panicle, 10–30 cm; bracts 5–15 mm, green; pedicels in fruit spreading to ascending, 3–25 mm.
Flower: bisexual or on branches sterile or staminate; perianth parts 2–6 mm, unequal, outer generally ± not clawed, inner clawed, gland distal margin evident or not; stamens ±, occasionally > perianth; styles ascending to erect.
Fruit: 8–20 mm, cylindric.
n=11. Dry sagebrush scrub to conifer forest; 1200–2300 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, n High Sierra Nevada, Great Basin Floristic Province;
Previous taxon: Toxicoscordion micranthum
Next taxon: Toxicoscordion venenosum var. venenosum
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
Copyright © 2012 Regents of the University of California
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.
|Bioregions in which taxon occurs||Red area (if present) is the part of the bioregion lying between the upper and lower elevation limits of the taxon;|
markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
Chart based on elevation range in Manual and elevations and coordinates of CCH records.
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
Note: About half of the CCH records include both elevation and coordinates.
|Map made in collaboration with Scott Loarie. Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records
CCH collections by month