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APIACEAE (Umbelliferae) CARROT FAMILY

Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb [shrub, tree], generally from taproot. Stem: generally ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow. Leaf: basal and generally cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, occasionally compound. Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present in involucres or 0; bractlets generally present in "involucels". Flower: many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform at tip subtending 2 free styles. Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves (= mericarps), separating from each other but generally ± persistent to central axis; ribs on halves 5, 2 marginal, 3 to back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs.
300 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem. is historical garden weed; some toxic (e.g., Conium). Mature fruit generally critical in identification, shape given in outline. Hydrocotyle moved to Araliaceae. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill is a waif. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Apiaceae

TORILIS
Annual, taprooted, hairy or bristly. Stem: spreading or erect, branched. Leaf: blade lanceolate to triangular, 1-pinnately dissected. Inflorescence: umbels compound, terminal or opposite leaves, peduncled or sessile; bracts generally 0 or small; bractlets several, thread-like to linear; rays 0–few, spreading-ascending; pedicels 0 or short. Flower: generally ± bilateral; calyx lobes 0 or evident; petals obcordate, white or ± red, tips narrowed, outer petals ± > others; styles short. Fruit: oblong to ovate, ± compressed side-to-side; 1° ribs thread-like, prickly, 2° ribs densely prickly or tubercled; oil tubes 1 per rib interval; fruit axis divided in distal 1/2. Seed: face grooved.
10–15 species: Eurasia. (Name used by Adanson in 1763, meaning obscure)

Key to Torilis

T. arvensis (Huds.) Link TALL SOCK-DESTROYER
NATURALIZED
Plant 3–10 dm, slender. Leaf: petiole 2–8 cm; blade 5–12 cm, ± ovate, 2–3-pinnate, leaflets 5–60 mm, lanceolate to ovate, regularly pinnately cut; distal cauline leaves generally 1-pinnate. Inflorescence: peduncle 2–12 cm; bracts 0–2; bractlets several, 2–4 mm, linear; rays 2–10, ± equal; pedicels 1–4 mm. Fruit: 3–5 mm, oblong-ovate; prickles spreading, length generally = fruit width.
2n=12. Disturbed places; < 1600 m. California Floristic Province (especially Northwestern California, n Sierra Nevada Foothills, Central Western California); widely introduced, native to central and southern Europe. Apr–Jul {Weed listed by Cal-IPC} [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Torilis arvensis subsp. purpurea (Ten.) Hayek]

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Next taxon: Torilis nodosa

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 28 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Torilis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=46743, accessed on Jul 28 2014

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click for enlargement Torilis arvensis
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2004 Laura Ann Eliassen

Bioregions in which Torilis arvensis occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.