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Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.
Key to Boraginaceae
Annual to subshrub, variously hairy, glandular or not; ± taprooted, rhizome generally 0. Stem: prostrate. Leaf: cauline, generally clustered, evergreen, petioled, margin rolled under, entire or ± crenate. Inflorescence: ± axillary; flowers 1 or clustered, sessile. Flower: radial to ± bilateral; calyx lobes 5, not enlarged in fruit; corolla generally ± funnel-shaped, tube yellow in youth, appendages 0; style 2-lobed, stigmas 2. Fruit: nutlets 1–4, not separate to base, 4-grooved to deep-4-lobed, ± tubercled or not.Key to Tiquilia
27 species: western hemisphere deserts. (Native South American name for flower)
Unabridged references: [Richardson 1977 Rhodora 79:467–572]
Unabridged note: Separated from Coldenia of eastern hemisphere prior to TJM (1993).
Perennial herb, ± woody, bark white; rhizome 0. Stem: branches opposite, ± nonglandular; hairs ± shaggy. Leaf: clustered, ± gray-strigose; blade 3.5–11 mm, ovate to round, margin ± crenate, lateral veins 2–3 pairs, shallow-sunken, ± 45° from midvein. Inflorescence: flowers clustered in leaf axils; bracted. Flower: calyx 2–3.5 mm, lobes ± 1/2 free, hairs within short or 0; corolla 5–9 mm, limb 4–5 mm diam, blue, purple, or lavender; style > calyx, branched 1/2. Fruit: deeply 4-lobed; nutlets spheric, smooth, shiny.
n=8,9. Sandy gravel soils, on terraced flats; < 650 m. Desert (especially w edge Sonoran Desert and near Colorado River); southwestern Nevada, western Arizona, northern Mexico. Mar–Jun [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Tiquilia nuttallii
Next taxon: Tiquilia plicata
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on May 23 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Tiquilia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=46669, accessed on May 23 2015
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© 2004 James M. Andre
|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Tiquilia palmeri|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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