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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Richard R. Halse & Timothy C. Messick, family description, key to genera; treatment of genera by Ronald B. Kelley, except as noted

Annual to shrub or small tree, or non-green root parasite, often bristly or sharp-hairy. Stem: prostrate to erect. Leaf: basal and/or cauline, generally simple, generally alternate. Inflorescence: generally cymes, or panicle-, raceme-, head-, or spike-like, generally coiled in flower (often described as scorpioid), generally elongating in fruit, or flowers 1–2 per axil. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals (4)5(10), fused at least at base, or free; corolla (4)5(10)-lobed, salverform, funnel-shaped, rotate, or bell-shaped, generally without scales at tube base, with 0 or 5 appendages at tube top, alternate stamens; stamens epipetalous; ovary generally superior, entire to 4-lobed, style 1(2), entire or 2-lobed or -branched. Fruit: valvate or circumscissile capsule or nutlets 1–4, free (fused), smooth to roughened, prickly or bristly or not.
± 120 genera, ± 2300 species: tropics, temperate, especially western North America, Mediterranean; some cultivated (Borago, Heliotropium, Echium, Myosotis, Nemophila, Phacelia, Symphytum, Wigandia). Many genera may be TOXIC from pyrrolizidine alkaloids or accumulated nitrates. [Olmstead et al. 2000 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Recently treated to include Hydrophyllaceae, Lennoaceae. Wigandia urens added, as naturalized. —Scientific Editors: Ronald B. Kelley, Robert Patterson, Thomas J. Rosatti, Bruce G. Baldwin, David J. Keil.

Key to Boraginaceae

Annual to subshrub, variously hairy, glandular or not; ± taprooted, rhizome generally 0. Stem: prostrate. Leaf: cauline, generally clustered, evergreen, petioled, margin rolled under, entire or ± crenate. Inflorescence: ± axillary; flowers 1 or clustered, sessile. Flower: radial to ± bilateral; calyx lobes 5, not enlarged in fruit; corolla generally ± funnel-shaped, tube yellow in youth, appendages 0; style 2-lobed, stigmas 2. Fruit: nutlets 1–4, not separate to base, 4-grooved to deep-4-lobed, ± tubercled or not.
27 species: western hemisphere deserts. (Native South American name for flower)
Unabridged references: [Richardson 1977 Rhodora 79:467–572]
Unabridged note: Separated from Coldenia of eastern hemisphere prior to TJM (1993).

Key to Tiquilia

T. nuttallii (Hook.) A.T. Richardson ANNUAL TIQUILIA
Annual, rosette prostrate; rhizome 0. Stem: branches opposite, ± nonglandular, hairs ± appressed. Leaf: clustered, hairs ± spreading; blade 3.5–9 mm, ovate to round, margin entire, lateral vein pairs 2–3, shallow-sunken, ± 30° from midvein. Inflorescence: flowers clustered in leaf axils; bracted. Flower: calyx 3–5 mm, lobes 2/3–3/4 free, hairs within short; corolla 3–4 mm, limb 2–2.5 mm diam, pink to white; style < calyx, branched 1/3–1/2. Fruit: 4-lobed; nutlets oblong-ovoid, smooth, shiny.
n=8. Sandy plains, pumice gravel, washes, slopes, saline flats; < 2750 m. s Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area, e Modoc Plateau, East of Sierra Nevada, Mojave Desert; to Washington, Utah; also Argentina. [Coldenia nuttallii Hook.] May–Aug [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Tiquilia canescens var. pulchella
Next taxon: Tiquilia palmeri


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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Tiquilia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015

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click for enlargement Tiquilia nuttallii
See CalPhotos for additional images
2003 Christopher L. Christie

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Tiquilia nuttallii Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.