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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to woody per; roots generally fibrous.
Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid.
Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base.
Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets).
Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets ( lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma.
Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose.
Fruit: grain (rarely achene-like).
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in CA from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for s CA (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
Key to Poaceae
Generally perennial herb, tufted or occasionally rhizomatous.Key to Stipa
Stem: generally erect, generally unbranched at distal nodes, persistent or not.
Leaf: basal or cauline, sheaths open, auricles 0, ligules scarious to membranous, generally ciliate, blade flat to inrolled.
Inflorescence: generally panicle-like, generally narrow.
Spikelet: generally 1-flowered; glumes generally > floret except awn, membranous, flexible, veins 1–10, awns 0; floret 1(6), generally round ( compressed) in ×-section; axis breaking between glumes and floret; callus blunt to sharp, glabrous to hairy; lemma membranous to leathery or hardened, glabrous to hairy, obscurely 3–7-veined, margins overlapping or not, tip entire to 2-lobed or forked, occasionally fused into a crown, 1-awned at or near tip ( mucronate), awn (0)3–225(300) mm, unbranched, straight to bent or curled, twisted or not, persistent or not; palea < to > lemma, generally flat, glabrous to hairy, veins (0)2(3).
Fruit: ovoid to fusiform, beak 0.
± 600 species: temperate, tropics, generally ± arid, ± worldwide; many species valuable cattle forage, cordage, some weedy. (Greek: stupe or stuppeion, for fiber or cordage, referring to plumose awns of Eurasian species or fibers from especially Stipa tenacissima L.) [Barkworth 2007 FNANM 24:109–186; Columbus & Smith 2010 Aliso 28:65–67] Floret, lemma lengths and shapes in key and text exclude awn. Many related and some poorly defined genera placed here in a broadly treated genus. Hybrids not rare. 4 waifs in CA, Stipa caudata Trin. [Amelichloa caudata (Trin.) Arriaga & Barkworth], Stipa clandestina Hack. [Amelichloa clandestina (Hack.) Arriaga & Barkworth], Stipa plumosa Trin. [Jarava plumosa (Spreng.) S.W.L. Jacobs & J. Everett], Stipa tenuissima Trin. [Nassella tenuissima (Trin.) Barkworth] <Noxious weed>. Stipa viridula Trin. [Nassella viridula (Trin.) Barkworth], possibly in CA but records unclear.
With short rhizomes.
Stem: 6–15 dm.
Leaf: proximal sheaths mostly glabrous; blade 3–7 mm wide.
Inflorescence: 10–24 cm, dense.
Spikelet: glumes 14–16 mm, lanceolate; floret 8–12 mm; callus 0.5–1.2 mm, rounded; lemma <= palea, hairy throughout, tip lobes 2, 1–3 mm, awn 18–25 mm, bent 1–2 ×, persistent, minutely scabrous; palea >= lemma, tip 2-lobed.
Conifer forest; 350–1920 m. Klamath Ranges, Cascade Range, n Sierra Nevada.
Previous taxon: Stipa speciosa
Next taxon: Stipa thurberiana
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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|Bioregions in which taxon occurs||Red area (if present) is the part of the bioregion lying between the upper and lower elevation limits of the taxon;|
markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may have georeferencing or identification issues.
Chart based on elevation range in Manual and elevations and coordinates of CCH records.
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
Note: About half of the CCH records include both elevation and coordinates.
|Map made in collaboration with Scott Loarie. Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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