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EUPHORBIACEAE SPURGE FAMILY

Mark H. Mayfield & Grady L. Webster, except as noted

Annual to shrub, tree [vine, cactus-like succulent]; monoecious or dioecious; sap clear or milky. Stem: generally branched [fleshy or spiny]. Leaf: generally simple, alternate to whorled, generally stipuled, sessile or petioled; blade entire, toothed, or lobed. Inflorescence: flowers solitary or in terminal or axillary cymes, racemes, spikes, or panicles, or (in Euphorbia) 1° inflorescence a compact, flower-like cyathium with much-reduced flowers enclosed within an involucre of fused bracts, cyathia terminal or axillary, 1 or in cyme-like arrays. Flower: unisexual, ± radial; sepals 0 or 2–6, free or fused; petals generally 0(5); stamens 1–many, free or filaments fused; ovary superior, chambers (1)3(4), styles free or fused, undivided, forked, or variously lobed. Fruit: generally capsule that splits into mericarps that then dehisce, releasing seeds. Seed: 1 per chamber; knob-like appendage sometimes present at attachment scar.
217 genera, 6000+ species: ± worldwide especially tropics; some cultivated (Aleurites, tung oil; Euphorbia species; Hevea, rubber; Ricinus). Many species ± highly TOXIC, due primarily to latex, especially if eaten or in contact with skin, eyes. [Yang et al. 2012 Taxon 61:764–789] Eremocarpus moved to Croton, Tetracoccus moved to Picrodendraceae for TJM2; Chamaesyce moved to Euphorbia here (key to genera revised by Thomas J. Rosatti). —Scientific Editor: Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Euphorbiaceae

STILLINGIA
Annual, perennial herb, < 2 m; sap clear or milky; monoecious. Stem: erect. Leaf: alternate, entire or toothed; stipules minute, petioled; blade base generally with 2 glands. Inflorescence: spike, axillary or terminal; bracts glandular. Staminate flower: calyx 2-lobed; stamens 2; nectary disk 0. Pistillate flower: sepals 3, overlapping in bud, reduced, or 0; ovary 3-chambered, styles free, fused proximally, lobes 0. Fruit: generally 3-lobed, separating into 3 1-seeded segments; central axis persistent. Seed: pointed; scar not appendaged.
30 species: tropics, warm temperate. (Benjamin Stillingfleet, British botanist, 1702–1771) [Johnston & Warnock 1963 Southwestern California Naturalist 8:100–106]

Key to Stillingia

S. linearifolia S. Watson
NATIVE
Perennial herb < 7 dm. Leaf: blade 1–4 cm, < 2 mm wide, linear, entire. Inflorescence: 2–7 cm, terminal; glands of pistillate bracts stalked, ± 1 mm. Pistillate flower: 3–6 per inflorescence, well separated; styles ± 1 mm. Fruit: ± 3.5 mm. Seed: ± 2 mm, smooth.
Dry slopes, washes; < 1500 m. Southwestern California, Desert; Arizona, Mexico. Mar–May [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Stillingia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=45629, accessed on Oct 22 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Stillingia linearifolia Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.