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Key to families | Table of families and genera

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POACEAE (Gramineae) GRASS FAMILY

James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted

Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]

Key to Poaceae

STENOTAPHRUM

James P. Smith, Jr. & Robert Webster

Annual, perennial herb. Stem: prostrate to ascending, generally compressed; internode solid to spongy inside. Leaf: cauline; ligule mostly hairy, membrane < 0.5 mm; blade folded. Inflorescence: spike-like, inflorescence branches, pedicels reduced, ± embedded, with spikelet bases, in flattened, straight or wavy, thickened axis. Spikelet: compressed, generally falling as 1 unit, sometimes with inflorescence axis; glumes equal to unequal; florets 2, lower floret sterile or staminate, lemma ± = upper glume, upper floret bisexual, lemma thick, firm, smooth or minutely rough, margin flat or inrolled, tip blunt.
7 species: tropics worldwide. (Greek: narrow trench, from spikelet scars on inflorescence axis)
Unabridged references: [Allred 2003 FNANM 25:560–561; Sauer 1972 Brittonia 24:202–222]

S. secundatum (Walter) Kuntze SAINT AUGUSTINE GRASS
NATURALIZED
Perennial herb from long stolons. Stem: vegetative generally prostrate; flower stem decumbent, 1–4 dm. Leaf: sheath 1.2–10 cm, glabrous; ligule ± 0.5 mm; blade 5–15 cm, 5–15 mm wide, upper surface glabrous. Inflorescence: 5–10 cm; axis straight or wavy, thickened, flat; each spikelet subtended by 1 bristle; spikelet stalk < 0.5 mm. Spikelet: 4–5 mm, ± 1.5–2 mm wide, lanceolate to elliptic; lower glume 1–2 mm; upper glume ± = spikelet; lower floret sterile, lemma 7–9-veined, tip acute to acuminate, palea ± = lemma; upper floret slightly < lower floret.
Fields, roadsides; < 150 m. Central Coast, South Coast; southern United States, Africa, Pacific islands; probably native to South America. Jul–Sep [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 19 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Stenotaphrum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=45599, accessed on Sep 19 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Stenotaphrum secundatum Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.