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MELANTHIACEAE FALSE-HELLEBORE FAMILY

Dale W. McNeal, except as noted

Perennial herb, from rhizome or bulb, or rhizomes ending in weakly developed bulbs, scapose or not. Leaf: alternate, whorled, or mostly basal and spirally arranged, deciduous after 1 year or not. Inflorescence: raceme, panicle, or flowers 1. Flower: perianth parts 6, in 2 petal-like whorls or of sepals and petals, free or fused below, ± spreading; stamens 6, from perianth, anthers attached at base or near middle; ovary superior or partly inferior, chambers 3, styles 3, persistent. Fruit: capsule, loculicidal or septicidal.
10 genera, 130 species: northern hemisphere. W North America Zigadenus moved to Toxicoscordion. —Scientific Editors: Dale W. McNeal, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Melanthiaceae

STENANTHIUM
Stem: ± scapose, simple or branched. Leaf: mostly basal, grass-like; cauline 1–2, much reduced; deciduous after 1 year. Flower: nodding, unisexual or not; perianth parts free or ± fused at base, glands 0; filaments wider at base, anthers attached near middle, 1-chambered; ovary partly inferior (at base), ovoid. Fruit: septicidal. Seed: oblong, coat loose, winged at both ends.
5 species: North America, Asia. (Greek: narrow flower) [Zomlefer et al. 2006 Aliso 22:566–578]
Unabridged references: [Zomlefer, W. B., et al. 2006. A synopsis of Melanthiaceae with focus on character evolution in tribe Melanthieae. Aliso 22:566–578]

S. occidentale A. Gray
NATIVE
Bulb 2–4 cm. Stem: 20–50 cm. Leaf: 10–30 cm, 3–15 mm wide. Inflorescence: raceme or panicle, 10–20 cm; bracts lance-linear, scarious; pedicels 5–30 mm, ascending. Flower: 1–2 cm, bell-shaped; perianth parts lance-oblong, pale green-yellow to ± purple, especially near margins or not, tips recurved. Fruit: 15–20 mm (including persistent styles). Seed: ± 3 mm.
n=8. Moist banks, thickets, meadows; 1500–1900 m. Klamath Ranges; to western Canada, Montana. Late May–Jul [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 25 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Stenanthium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=45534, accessed on Oct 25 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Stenanthium occidentale Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.