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Key to families | Table of families and genera

Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual to shrub, some aquatic. Leaf: basal or cauline, alternate or opposite (whorled), simple, entire to dentate or lobed, venation generally pinnate; stipules 0. Inflorescence: raceme, spike, or flowers axillary in 1–few-flowered clusters; flowers few to many, each subtended by 1 bract. Flower: unisexual or bisexual, radial or bilateral; sepals 4–5, generally fused at base; corolla 4–5-lobed, scarious or not, persistent or not, generally 2-lipped, upper lip generally 2-lobed, lower generally 3-lobed, spur present or not, tube sac-like at base or not; stamens 2 or 4, alternate corolla lobes, epipetalous, staminode 0 or 1–2, anthers opening by 2 slits; ovary superior, [1]2–4-chambered, style 1, stigma lobes 0 or 2. Fruit: generally a capsule, septicidal, loculicidal, circumscissile, or dehiscing by terminal slits or pores.
110 genera, ± 2000 species: worldwide, especially temperate. [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553; Olmstead et al. 2001 Molec Phylogen Evol 16:96–112] Veronicaceae sensu Olmstead et al. Recently treated to include Callitrichaceae, Hippuridaceae, and most non-parasitic California genera of Scrophulariaceae (except Buddleja, Limosella, Mimulus, Myoporum, Scrophularia, Verbascum). California Maurandya moved to Holmgrenanthe and Maurandella. Limnophila ×ludoviciana Thieret an occasional agricultural weed in rice fields. Hebe ×franciscana (Eastw.) Souster, Hebe speciosa (R. Cunn.) Andersen only cultivated. —Scientific Editors: Robert Patterson, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Plantaginaceae


Robert E. Preston & Margriet Wetherwax

[Annual] perennial herb [shrub]. Stem: 1–many, ascending to erect. Leaf: generally opposite, clasping, ± dentate to pinnately-lobed. Inflorescence: flowers in terminal interrupted spikes, 2–4 per node; bracts 2 proximal to calyx. Flower: sepals 5, free; corolla 5-lobed, 2-lipped, white to violet or purple, tube 4-angled, upper lip 2-lobed, arched, lower lip reflexed; stamens 4, in 2 pairs, anther sacs well separated by thick tissue; stigma lobes 2, flat. Fruit: loculicidal, ± ovoid. Seed: many, surface net-like.
± 50 species: tropical America, Africa, Asia, Australia. (Latin: from stemodiacra, stamens with 2 tips)
Unabridged references: [Turner & Cowan 1993 Phytologia 74:61–103]

S. durantifolia (L.) Sw. PURPLE STEMODIA
Plant glandular-hairy. Stem: 10–100 cm. Leaf: 2–3 per node, ± sessile, 2–4 cm, 5–20 mm wide, ± lanceolate, ± dentate; reduced distally on stem. Inflorescence: pedicels 2–12 mm; bracts ± = sepals. Flower: sepals 5–7 mm, lanceolate, long-tapered; corolla 7–10 mm, violet to purple. Fruit: 4–5 mm, ovoid-cylindric.
Riparian habitats, on wet sand or rocks, drying streambeds; < 400 m. Peninsular Ranges, w Sonoran Desert; Arizona, Texas, to South America; introduced elsewhere. Stemodia durantifolia var. chilensis (Benth.) C.C. Cowan in Chile. All year [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Stemodia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Stemodia durantifolia Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.