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Annual to perennial herb; rarely dioecious (Silene), taprooted or rhizome generally slender. Leaf: simple, generally opposite (subwhorled), entire, pairs at nodes often ± connected at bases; stipules generally 0; petiole generally 0. Inflorescence: generally cyme, generally open; flowers 1–many; involucre generally 0 (present in Dianthus, Petrorhagia). Flower: generally bisexual, radial; hypanthium often present but obscure; sepals (4)5, ± free or fused into a tube, margins generally scarious, more so on inner 2 or not, tube generally not scarious, awns generally 0; petals (4)5 or 0, generally tapered to base (or with claw long, limb expanded), entire to 2–several-lobed, limb generally without scale-like appendages adaxially, generally without ear-like lobes at base; stamens generally 10, generally fertile, generally free, generally from ovary base; nectaries 0 or 5; ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, placentas basal or free-central, styles 2–5 with 0 branches or 1 with 2–3 branches. Fruit: capsule or utricle (rarely ± dehiscent), generally sessile. Seed: appendage generally 0 (present in Moehringia).
83 or 89 genera, 3000 species: widespread, especially arctic, alpine, temperate northern hemisphere; some cultivated (Agrostemma, Arenaria, Cerastium, Dianthus, Gypsophila, Lychnis, Sagina, Saponaria, Silene, Vaccaria). [Rabeler & Hartman 2005 FNANM 5:3–215] Apetalous Caryophyllaceae can also be keyed in Rabeler & Hartman 2005 FNANM 5:5–8. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Key to Caryophyllaceae
Annual, perennial herb, erect to prostrate; taprooted, rhizomed. Stem: 4-angled or round. Leaf: petioled or not; linear to ovate, vein 1. Inflorescence: terminal or axillary, umbel-like or not, open to dense; flowers 1–many (if 1, axillary); peduncles, pedicels 0.8–50+ mm. Flower: sepals (4)5, free, 1.5–5.5 mm, lanceolate to ovate, glabrous to glandular-hairy; petals 0 or (1)5, 0.8–7 mm, 2-lobed > 1/2 to base; stamens 10 or fewer; styles 3(4–5 in Stellaria calycantha), 0.2–2.8 mm. Fruit: capsule, ± ovoid or spheric to cylindric-oblong; valves 6(8,10), ascending to recurved. Seed: several to many, brown to ± yellow, ± red, or purple-brown.Key to Stellaria
± 190 species: worldwide. (Latin: star, from flower shape) [Morton 2005 FNANM 5:96–114] Presence of papillae on leaf margins determined at 20×.
Unabridged references: [Chinnappa & Morton 1991 Rhodora 93:129–135; Morton & Rabeler 1989 Canad J Bot 67:121–127; Morton 2005 FNANM 5:96–114]
Annual but often over-wintering, prostrate to erect, 7–50 cm; taproot slender. Stem: internode hairs in line. Leaf: ± evenly spaced; blade 8–45 mm, ± ovate, margin ± not papillate, ± flat, shiny, often ciliate near base. Inflorescence: terminal or axillary, few-flowered, ± dense; bracts leaf-like; pedicels spreading to erect, in fruit curved to reflexed. Flower: sepals 5, 2–3 mm, < 4 mm in fruit, lanceolate to ovate, obtuse to acute, glabrous or ± hairy and glandular, margin ± thinly scarious, ribs often 1 or 3 near base; petals 0. Seed: 0.7–0.8 mm, yellow- to light red-brown, tubercles conical.
2n=22. Oak woodland, streambanks, grassy hills, flats, disturbed areas; < 450(1500) m. s North Coast, n&c Sierra Nevada Foothills, Tehachapi Mountain Area/Western Transverse Ranges, Sacramento Valley, Central Coast, Outer South Coast Ranges, s Channel Islands, Peninsular Ranges; Washington, Colorado, Arizona, Baja California, to eastern North America; native to southwestern Europe. Spring [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Stellaria obtusa
Next taxon: Stellaria umbellata
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 29 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Stellaria, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=45501, accessed on Mar 29 2015
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Stellaria pallida|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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