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Annual to shrub [tree, vine], glabrous to hairy, generally aromatic. Stem: generally erect, generally 4-angled. Leaf: generally simple to deeply lobed, generally opposite, generally gland-dotted. Inflorescence: generally cymes, generally many in dense axillary clusters surrounding stem, generally separated by evident internodes or collectively crowded, spike- or panicle-like, occasionally head-like or raceme, subtended by leaves or bracts; flowers sessile or pedicelled. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx generally 5-lobed, radial to bilateral; corolla generally bilateral, 1–2-lipped, upper lip entire or 2-lobed, ± flat to hood-like, occasionally 0, lower lip generally 3-lobed; stamens generally 4, epipetalous, generally exserted, paired, pairs generally unequal, occasionally 2, staminodes 2 or 0; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed to base chambers 2, ovules 2 per chamber, style 1, generally arising from center at junction of lobes, stigmas generally 2. Fruit: generally 4 nutlets, generally ovoid to oblong, smooth.
± 230 genera, 7200 species: worldwide. Many cultivated for herbs, oils (Lavandula, lavender; Mentha, mint; Rosmarinus, rosemary; Thymus, thyme), some cultivated as ornamental (in California Cedronella, Leonotis, Monarda, Phlomis). [Harley et al. 2004 Fam Generally Vasc Plant 7:167–275] Moluccella laevis L., shell flower, historical waif in California. Satureja calamintha (L.) Scheele subsp. ascendens (Jordan) Briq. reported as alien but not naturalized. Salazaria moved to Scutellaria; California Hyptis moved to Condea, California Satureja moved to Clinopodium. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Lamiaceae
Perennial herb [annual], hairy, generally glandular; rhizome slender or 0. Stem: decumbent to erect, 0.1–2.5 m. Leaf: 1.5–18 cm, proximal generally petioled, distal ± sessile; blade oblong to ovate, serrate to crenate. Inflorescence: spike-like, generally terminal, interrupted or continuous, bracted. Flower: calyx bell-shaped, ± radial, veins 5–10, lobes 5, erect or spreading, triangular, tips sharp; corolla white, yellow, pink, red, magenta, or purple, tube narrow, with internal ring of hairs generally above base, perpendicular to oblique to tube axis, generally with short, pouched spur on the lower side of the tube, upper lip erect or generally parallel to tube axis, concave, entire (notched), generally hairy, lower lip perpendicular to tube axis or reflexed, 3(2)-lobed, glabrous to hairy. Fruit: oblong to ovoid, brown to black, smooth or irregularly, minutely roughened.Key to Stachys
± 300 species: generally temperate; some cultivated for ornamental or edible rhizomatous tubers. (Greek: ear of corn, from inflorescence) [Mulligan & Munro 1989 Naturaliste Canad 116:35–51] Stachys arvensis L., Stachys floridana Shuttlew. historical waifs.
Unabridged references: [Epling 1934 Fedde Rep Sp Nov Regni Veg 80:1–75]
Stem: erect, 1–2.5 m, simple to branched distally, stiff-hairy, glandular. Leaf: petiole < 8 cm; blade 6–18 cm, deltoid to ovate, soft-hairy, densely glandular abaxially, margins generally straight, crenate, base cordate, tip acute. Inflorescence: 10–40 cm, interrupted; clusters 2–6-flowered. Flower: calyx tube 7–12 mm, soft-hairy, glandular, lobes 3.5–4.5 mm; corolla deep magenta to purple, tube 18–24 mm, ring of hairs > 2 mm from base, perpendicular to ± oblique, upper lip 6–10 mm, reflexed in age, lower lip 8.5–15 mm.
2n=64. Wet, swampy places, generally coastal; < 150 m. North Coast, Central Coast, South Coast Ranges. May–Oct [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Stachys flaccida Eastw.]
Unabridged note: Stachys cooleyae A. Heller [Stachys chamissonis var. cooleyae (Heller) G.A. Mulligan & D.B. Munro] not in California.
Previous taxon: Stachys bullata
Next taxon: Stachys mexicana
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 31 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Stachys, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=45346, accessed on Jul 31 2014
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