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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain (rarely achene-like).
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
Key to Poaceae
Annual, perennial herb. Stem: generally ascending to erect, 2–20 dm, generally tufted, ± solid in ×-section. Leaf: generally basal; cauline few, ascending or curving away; distal sheath margin and collar glabrous or hairy; ligule < 1 mm, hairy or membranous, fringed; blade flat to inrolled, generally glabrous or scabrous, occasionally short-soft-hairy. Inflorescence: terminal, also occasionally axillary, panicle- or spike-like, generally partly enclosed by sheath; branches spreading or appressed. Spikelet: < 6 mm, generally pale to gray-green or ± purple; glumes generally unequal, upper < or > lemma, membranous to translucent, 1-veined; floret bisexual, generally breaking above glumes; lemma texture generally like glumes, 1(3)-veined; palea < or > lemma. Fruit: 1–3 mm, generally falling from floret, generally gelatinous when wet.Key to Sporobolus
± 150 species: America, Eurasia, Africa, Australia. (Greek: to throw seed, from deciduous seeds) [Peterson et al. 2003 FNANM 25:115–139]
Unabridged references: [Baaijens & Veldkamp 1991 Blumea 35: 393–458; Colbry 1957 Cont US Natl Mus 34:1–24; Veldkamp 1990 Taxon 39:327–328]
Perennial herb. Stem: tufted, erect, 9–25 dm. Leaf: base, shiny, straw-colored, distal sheath margin glabrous to short-hairy, collar glabrous or with sparse long hairs to 6 mm; ligule < 0.5 mm, fringe hairs to 2 mm; blade 20–70 cm, 3–10 mm wide. Inflorescence: generally terminal, exserted, lanceolate, open; 1° branches ascending, lowest generally > 6 cm, > internodes, 2° weakly spreading or appressed, bearing 3°, spikelets to near base, appearing dense. Spikelet: 1.5–3 mm, green to purple; glumes narrowly lanceolate, tip acute to obtuse, unequal, lower 0.5–1 mm, upper 0.8–2, > 0.6 × lemma; lemma 1.2–2.5 mm, glabrous, lanceolate to ovate, tip acute; anthers 1.1–1.3 mm. Fruit: 1–1.4 mm, ellipsoid, striate, red-brown.
2n=36. Seasonally moist, alkaline areas; < 1000 m. Southwestern California, Sonoran Desert; Utah; Arizona to Oklahoma, Texas, northern and central Mexico. Seeded for erosion control or wetland revegetation. Apr–Nov [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Sporobolus airoides var. wrightii (Munro ex Scribn.) Gould]
Unabridged note: Expanded author citation: Sporobolus wrightii Munro ex Scribn.
Previous taxon: Sporobolus vaginiflorus
Next taxon: Stenotaphrum
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Mar 10 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Sporobolus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=45333, accessed on Mar 10 2014
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