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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]
Key to Poaceae
Annual, perennial herb. Stem: generally ascending to erect, 2–20 dm, generally tufted, ± solid in ×-section. Leaf: generally basal; cauline few, ascending or curving away; distal sheath margin and collar glabrous or hairy; ligule < 1 mm, hairy or membranous, fringed; blade flat to inrolled, generally glabrous or scabrous, occasionally short-soft-hairy. Inflorescence: terminal, also occasionally axillary, panicle- or spike-like, generally partly enclosed by sheath; branches spreading or appressed. Spikelet: < 6 mm, generally pale to gray-green or ± purple; glumes generally unequal, upper < or > lemma, membranous to translucent, 1-veined; floret bisexual, generally breaking above glumes; lemma texture generally like glumes, 1(3)-veined; palea < or > lemma. Fruit: utricle-like, when wet gelatinous with seed emergent from split ovary wall.Key to Sporobolus
± 150 species: America, Eurasia, Africa, Australia. (Greek: to throw seed, from deciduous seeds) [Peterson et al. 2003 FNANM 25:115–139]
Unabridged references: [Baaijens & Veldkamp 1991 Blumea 35: 393–458; Colbry 1957 Cont US Natl Mus 34:1–24; Veldkamp 1990 Taxon 39:327–328]
Perennial herb. Stem: tufted, erect, 3–6(12) dm. Leaf: base dull, green to brown, margin glabrous or ciliate, collar glabrous; ligule < 0.5 mm, fringe hairs to 1 mm; blade 6–30 cm, 1–5 mm wide. Inflorescence: generally terminal, exserted or base sheathed, contracted, dense, branches and spikelets to near base; 1° branches appressed, lowest generally < 2 cm, > internodes, 2° appressed, bearing 3°, spikelets to near base, appearing dense. Spikelet: 1.5–2.5 mm, green or lead-colored; glumes ovate, tip obtuse, often jagged, unequal, lower 0.5–1 mm, upper 0.8–1.6, < 0.6 × lemma; lemma 1.8–2.5 mm, glabrous, ovate, tip obtuse; anthers 0.5–1 mm. Fruit: 1–1.2 mm, 4-angled, striate, red-brown.
2n=36. Open, disturbed areas, roadsides; < 1200 m. Sacramento Valley, n San Joaquin Valley, Central Western California (except Inner South Coast Ranges), South Coast, Peninsular Ranges; to southeastern United States, Caribbean, Mexico; pantropical. [Sporobolus creber DeNardi] Apr–Nov [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Sporobolus poiretii (Roem. & Schult.) Hitchc., misappl.]
Unabridged note: Plants from Sacramento Valley (Glenn Co.) with collar hairs to 2 mm, panicle interrupted, main axis evident, spikelets 1–1.5 mm, lemma 1.1–1.5 mm, anthers 0.4–0.6 mm, fruit 0.7–0.8 mm conform to Sporobolus indicus var. creber (DeNardi) Veldkamp [Sporobolus creber DeNardi, e.g. FNANM 25:124], a minor variant from Australia (New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria), Malesia, New Caledonia, Fiji.
Previous taxon: Sporobolus flexuosus
Next taxon: Sporobolus vaginiflorus
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 21 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Sporobolus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=45308, accessed on Dec 21 2014
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Sporobolus indicus|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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