Directory       News       Site Map       Home
    Jepson eFlora: Taxon page
Key to families | Table of families and genera

Previous taxon Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Previous taxon


James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted

Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]

Key to Poaceae


Michael Curto

Annual, perennial herb. Stem: generally ascending to erect, 2–20 dm, generally tufted, ± solid in ×-section. Leaf: generally basal; cauline few, ascending or curving away; distal sheath margin and collar glabrous or hairy; ligule < 1 mm, hairy or membranous, fringed; blade flat to inrolled, generally glabrous or scabrous, occasionally short-soft-hairy. Inflorescence: terminal, also occasionally axillary, panicle- or spike-like, generally partly enclosed by sheath; branches spreading or appressed. Spikelet: < 6 mm, generally pale to gray-green or ± purple; glumes generally unequal, upper < or > lemma, membranous to translucent, 1-veined; floret bisexual, generally breaking above glumes; lemma texture generally like glumes, 1(3)-veined; palea < or > lemma. Fruit: utricle-like, when wet gelatinous with seed emergent from split ovary wall.
± 150 species: America, Eurasia, Africa, Australia. (Greek: to throw seed, from deciduous seeds) [Peterson et al. 2003 FNANM 25:115–139]
Unabridged references: [Baaijens & Veldkamp 1991 Blumea 35: 393–458; Colbry 1957 Cont US Natl Mus 34:1–24; Veldkamp 1990 Taxon 39:327–328]

Key to Sporobolus

S. cryptandrus (Torr.) A. Gray SAND DROPSEED
Perennial herb. Stem: tufted, erect, 3–10(12) dm. Leaf: base dull, green to brown, margin glabrous or ciliate, collar with conspicuous hairs to 4 mm; ligule < 0.5–1 mm, fringe hairs to 4 mm; blade 5–25 cm, 1–6 mm wide. Inflorescence: generally terminal, exserted to sheathed completely, spike-like initially, generally pyramid-shaped at maturity, open; 1° branches ascending, lowest generally > 3 cm, > internodes, 2° weakly spreading or appressed, bearing 3°, spikelets to near obscure base. Spikelet: 1.5–3 mm, green to purple or lead-colored; glumes narrowly lanceolate, tip acute, unequal, lower 0.5–1.1 mm, upper 1.5–2.7 mm, > 0.6 × lemma; lemma 1.5–2.5 mm, glabrous, ovate to lanceolate, tip acute; anthers 0.2–1 mm. Fruit: 0.7–1 mm, ellipsoid, striate, light- to red-brown.
2n=36,38,72. Rocky to sandy washes, slopes, scrub, woodland; 350–2800 m. High Sierra Nevada, San Gabriel Mountains, San Bernardino Mountains, Peninsular Ranges, East of Sierra Nevada, Desert, naturalized Cascade Range Foothills, Sacramento Valley, waif in San Joaquin Valley, Outer South Coast Ranges, South Coast; widespread southern Canada, United States (except Florida), northern Mexico, Argentina. [Sporobolus nealleyi Vasey misappl. from San Luis Obispo Co.] Apr–Oct [Online Interchange]
Unabridged note: FNANM 25:131 places Sporobolus nealleyi Vasey in San Luis Obispo Co. However, the only collection there (San Miguel, Keil 18434, OBI36541!) is Sporobolus cryptandrus. Seeded for erosion control or revegetation.

Previous taxon: Sporobolus contractus
Next taxon: Sporobolus flexuosus


Name search

Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Mar 27 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Sporobolus, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Mar 27 2015

Copyright © 2014 Regents of the University of California
We encourage links to these pages, but the content may not be downloaded for reposting, repackaging, redistributing, or sale in any form, without written permission from The Jepson Herbarium.

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Sporobolus cryptandrus Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

View elevation by latitude chart
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
View all CCH records


CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.