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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Perennial herb, terrestrial [growing on other plants], non-green (nutrition from association of roots with fungi) or green, generally from rhizomes or tubers with few to many fleshy to slender roots; cauline leaves ± reduced to sheathing stem bracts or not. Leaf: 1–many, basal to cauline, linear to ± round, alternate to opposite (if only 1 pair), generally sessile. Inflorescence: flowers 1–many, spike or raceme, bracted. Flower: bisexual, bilateral, in bud generally rotating 180° by twisting ovary (position of parts indicated after twisting); sepals generally 3, generally free, generally petal-like, uppermost generally erect, lateral with chin- or spur-like projection (mentum) or not; petals 3, 1 (lip) different, spurred or not; stamens generally 1 (3 in Cypripedium, 2 functional, 1 a staminode), fused with style, stigma into column, pollen generally lumped, generally removed as unit by insect; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal, stigma 3 lobed, generally under column tip. Fruit: capsule. Seed: many, minute.
± 800 genera, ± 25000 species: especially tropics (worldwide except Antarctica). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattleya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum; Vanilla planifolia Andrews fruits used to flavor food. [Romero-Gonzalez et al. 2002 FNANM 26:490–651] —Scientific Editors: Ronald A. Coleman, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Luer 1975 Orchids US and Can, NY Bot Garden; Coleman 1995 Wild Orchids of California. Cornell Univ.]
Key to Orchidaceae
Leaf: at flower 0 or ± basal. Inflorescence: spike, generally dense, flowers in spiral; bracts leaf-like, < to > flowers, gradually reduced upward, linear to oblong. Flower: sepals, lateral petals narrow-lanceolate; upper sepal ± fused to lateral petals, together hood-like, enclosing column, lower ± free, ± = lip, adherent to hood; lip not spurred, pouch-like, deeply grooved below middle, concave above; column < lip, tip with anther on back. Fruit: spreading to ascending.Key to Spiranthes
± 40 species: especially America, also Japan, Australia, New Zealand. (Greek: coiled flowers) Plants in Sierra Nevada may be hybrids between species below, for which Spiranthes stellata P.M. Brown et al. might be correct.
Unabridged references: [Sheviak 1990 Rhodora 92:213–231]
Unabridged note: Plants in Sierra Nevada may be hybrids between species below, for which Spiranthes stellata P.M. Brown, Dueck, & K.M. Cameron might be correct.
Plant 7–30 cm. Leaf: basal 3–13 cm. Inflorescence: 2–14 cm; flower bracts 6–14 mm. Flower: sepals, petals 8–12 mm; column 1.5–4 mm.
2n=44,66,88. Wet meadows, freshwater marshes, seeps; < 3300 m. Northwestern California, Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, San Bernardino Mountains, San Jacinto Mountains, Modoc Plateau; to Alaska, northeastern North America, New Mexico; Europe. May–Sep [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Spiranthes porrifolia
Next taxon: Poaceae
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 16 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Spiranthes, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=45264, accessed on Apr 16 2014
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© 1999 John Game
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