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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Perennial, terrestrial [growing on other plants], non-green (nutrition from association of roots with fungi) or green, generally from rhizomes or tubers with few to many fleshy to slender roots; cauline leaves ± reduced to sheathing stem bracts or not.
Leaf: 1–many, basal to cauline, linear to ± round, alternate to opposite (if only 1 pair), generally sessile.
Inflorescence: flowers 1–many, spike or raceme, bracted.
Flower: bisexual, bilateral, in bud generally rotating 180° by twisting ovary (position of parts indicated after twisting); sepals generally 3, generally free, generally petal-like, uppermost generally erect, lateral with chin- or spur-like projection (mentum) or not; petals 3, 1 ( lip) different, spurred or not; stamens generally 1 (3 in Cypripedium, 2 functional, 1 a staminode), fused with style, stigma into column, pollen generally lumped, generally removed as unit by insect; ovary inferior, 1-chambered, placentas 3, parietal, stigma 3 lobed, generally under column tip.
Seed: many, minute.
± 800 genera, ± 25000 species: especially tropics (worldwide except Antarctica). Many cultivated for ornamental, especially Cattleya, Cymbidium, Epidendrum, Oncidium, Paphiopedilum; Vanilla planifolia Andrews fruits used to flavor food. [Romero-Gonzalez et al. 2002 FNANM 26:490–651] —Scientific Editors: Ronald A. Coleman, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Luer 1975 Orchids US and Can, NY Bot Garden; Coleman 1995 Wild Orchids of California. Cornell Univ.]
Key to Orchidaceae
Key to Spiranthes
Leaf: at flower 0 or ± basal.
Inflorescence: spike, generally dense, flowers in spiral; bracts leaf-like, < to > flowers, gradually reduced upward, linear to oblong.
Flower: sepals, lateral petals narrow- lanceolate; upper sepal ± fused to lateral petals, together hood-like, enclosing column, lower ± free, ± = lip, adherent to hood; lip not spurred, pouch-like, deeply grooved below middle, concave above; column < lip, tip with anther on back.
Fruit: spreading to ascending.
± 40 species: especially Am, also Japan, Australia, New Zealand. (Greek: coiled flowers) Plants in SN may be hybrids between species below, for which Spiranthes stellata P.M. Brown et al. might be correct.
Unabridged references: [Sheviak 1990 Rhodora 92:213–231]
Unabridged note: Plants in SN may be hybrids between species below, for which Spiranthes stellata P.M. Brown, Dueck, & K.M. Cameron might be correct.
Plant 18–56 cm.
Leaf: basal 8–14 cm.
Inflorescence: 5–14 cm; flower bracts 7–20 mm.
Flower: sepals, petals 7–12 mm; column 2–4 mm.
2n=44. Wet meadows, freshwater marshes, seeps, grassland, oak woodland; < 2500 m. Northwestern California (except Inner North Coast Ranges), Cascade Range, Sierra Nevada, n Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges, San Gabriel Mountains, Peninsular Ranges;
Previous taxon: Spiranthes
Next taxon: Spiranthes romanzoffiana
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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|Bioregions in which taxon occurs||Red area (if present) is the part of the bioregion lying between the upper and lower elevation limits of the taxon;|
markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may have georeferencing or identification issues.
Chart based on elevation range in Manual and elevations and coordinates of CCH records.
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
Note: About half of the CCH records include both elevation and coordinates.
|Map made in collaboration with Scott Loarie. Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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