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APIACEAE (Umbelliferae) CARROT FAMILY

Lincoln Constance & Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual to perennial herb [shrub, tree], generally from taproot. Stem: generally ± scapose, generally ribbed, hollow. Leaf: basal and generally cauline, generally alternate; stipules generally 0; petiole base generally sheathing stem; blade generally much dissected, occasionally compound. Inflorescence: umbel or head, simple or compound, generally peduncled; bracts present in involucres or 0; bractlets generally present in "involucels". Flower: many, small, generally bisexual (or some staminate), generally radial (or outer bilateral); calyx 0 or lobes 5, small; petals 5, free, generally ovate or spoon-shaped, generally incurved at tips, generally ± ephemeral; stamens 5; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 2-chambered, generally with a ± conic, persistent projection or platform at tip subtending 2 free styles. Fruit: 2 dry, 1-seeded halves (= mericarps), separating from each other but generally ± persistent to central axis; ribs on halves 5, 2 marginal, 3 to back; oil tubes 1–several per interval between ribs.
300 genera, 3000 species: ± worldwide, especially temperate; many cultivated for food or spice (e.g., Carum, caraway; Daucus; Petroselinum); Bupleurum lancifolium Hornem. is historical garden weed; some toxic (e.g., Conium). Mature fruit generally critical in identification, shape given in outline. Hydrocotyle moved to Araliaceae. Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) A.W. Hill is a waif. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Apiaceae

SPERMOLEPIS
Annual, taprooted, glabrous. Stem: generally spreading, branched. Leaf: blade [oblong] ovate, ± ternate-pinnately dissected, segments thread-like to linear. Inflorescence: umbels compound, terminal and lateral, peduncled or not; bracts 0; bractlets few, narrow; rays, pedicels 0–few, ± erect, generally ± spreading. Flower: calyx lobes 0; petals oblong to ovate, white, tips not narrowed, not incurved. Fruit: widely ovate, ± compressed side-to-side; ribs low, thread-like; oil tubes 1–3 per rib-interval; fruit axis divided at tip. Seed: face grooved.
5 species: southern United States, Hawaii, southern South America. (Greek: seed scale, from tubercled or bristly fruit)

S. echinata (DC.) A. Heller BRISTLY SCALESEED
NATIVE
Plant low, spreading, 5–40 cm. Leaf: ovate; petiole 3–20 mm; blade 7–25 mm wide, segments 2–18 mm, thread-like. Inflorescence: peduncles 1–5 cm; bractlets few, thread-like to linear, entire or toothed; rays 5–14, 1–15 mm, generally ± ascending, unequal; pedicels generally < 7 mm, those of central flower of 2° umbels generally 0. Fruit: 1.5–2 mm wide; ribs prominent, short-bristly.
2n=16,20. Rocky slopes, sandy flats; 60–1500 m. Sonoran Desert (Borrego Valley); to southeastern United States, northern Mexico. Mar–Apr [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 18 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Spermolepis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=45124, accessed on Sep 18 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Spermolepis echinata Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.