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TYPHACEAE CATTAIL FAMILY

S. Galen Smith

Perennial herb, glabrous; monoecious; rhizomes or stolons long; colonial, in wet soil to aquatic. Stem: aerial stem 1, ± cylindric. Leaf: basal and cauline, alternate, 2-ranked, spongy; sheath open; ligule 0; blade ± linear. Inflorescence: spike-like or of spheric, unisexual heads; staminate flowers or heads distal to pistillate ones. Flower: small, densely-packed. Staminate flower: filaments fused proximally. Pistillate flower: pistil 1, ovary superior, ovules 1–2(4). Fruit: follicle, splitting in water, or drupe-like.
2 genera, ± 32 species: worldwide. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Typhaceae

SPARGANIUM BUR-REED
Plants generally submerged except inflorescence, or vegetative when all-submerged (emergent to ± terrestrial); rhizomes, stolons slender. Stem: unbranched proximal to inflorescence. Leaf: blade flat to convex, 3-sided, or abaxially keeled. Inflorescence: heads axillary and terminal, 2–60+; bracts leaf-like, distal reduced. Staminate flower: stamens 2–8. Pistillate flower: ovary chambers 1–2(4), stigmas generally 1(2–4). Fruit: drupe-like, spongy; perianth parts attached, style and generally stigmas persistent as beak; floating, water-dispersed.
± 17 species: northern temperate, western Pacific. (Probably Greek: swaddling band, for strap-shaped leaves) [Kaul 2000 FNANM 22:271–277] Fruit head diam including fruit beaks; fruit body lengths except beak, stalk-like base; beak lengths including stigmas.
Unabridged references: [Cook & Nicholls 1986 Bot Helv 96:213–267, 1987 Bot Helv 97:1–44]

Key to Sparganium

S. emersum Rehmann
NATIVE
Plants generally terrestrial to emergent, erect, to 75 cm, or aquatic and limp, to 1(2) m, distal parts floating. Leaf: widest blades 5–13 mm wide, generally 3-angled or keeled proximally; on vegetative plants in deep or fast-flowing water to 2.2 m, 18 mm wide, flat, generally not keeled. Inflorescence: emergent; main axis branches 0; staminate heads 3–7, well separated to crowded in flower; pistillate heads 1–6, proximal in axils, peduncled, distal sessile, 1.3–2.5 cm diam in fruit. Flower: perianth parts not dark-thickened distally; stigma 1–2(2.5) mm. Fruit: body 3.5–4 mm, 2–2.5 mm wide, ellipsoid to fusiform, tapered distally, beak 3–4 mm.
2n=30. ± Unpolluted freshwater habitats; < 2600 m. North Coast, Klamath Ranges, Outer North Coast Ranges, n&c High Sierra Nevada, San Bernardino Mountains, Modoc Plateau; to Alaska, northeastern North America; circumboreal. Locally common. Plants near coast generally robust, stiff, erect, in wet ground or shallow water; higher elevation inland plants generally slender, limp, ± submerged. Apparently intergrades with Sparganium angustifolium. Summer [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Sparganium angustifolium Michx. subsp. emersum (Rehmann) Brayshaw; Sparganium chlorocarpum Rydb.; Sparganium chlorocarpum var. acaule (Beeby) Fernald; Sparganium emersum subsp. acaule (Beeby) C.D.K. Cook & M.S. Nicholls]

Previous taxon: Sparganium angustifolium
Next taxon: Sparganium eurycarpum

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 24 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Sparganium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=45025, accessed on Jul 24 2014

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Bioregions in which Sparganium emersum occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.