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Perennial herb, glabrous; monoecious; rhizomes or stolons long; colonial, in wet soil to aquatic. Stem: aerial stem 1, ± cylindric. Leaf: basal and cauline, alternate, 2-ranked, spongy; sheath open; ligule 0; blade ± linear. Inflorescence: spike-like or of spheric, unisexual heads; staminate flowers or heads distal to pistillate ones. Flower: small, densely-packed. Staminate flower: filaments fused proximally. Pistillate flower: pistil 1, ovary superior, ovules 1–2(4). Fruit: follicle, splitting in water, or drupe-like.
2 genera, ± 32 species: worldwide. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Typhaceae
Plants generally submerged except inflorescence, or vegetative when all-submerged (emergent to ± terrestrial); rhizomes, stolons slender. Stem: unbranched proximal to inflorescence. Leaf: blade flat to convex, 3-sided, or abaxially keeled. Inflorescence: heads axillary and terminal, 2–60+; bracts leaf-like, distal reduced. Staminate flower: stamens 2–8. Pistillate flower: ovary chambers 1–2(4), stigmas generally 1(2–4). Fruit: drupe-like, spongy; perianth parts attached, style and generally stigmas persistent as beak; floating, water-dispersed.Key to Sparganium
± 17 species: northern temperate, western Pacific. (Probably Greek: swaddling band, for strap-shaped leaves) [Kaul 2000 FNANM 22:271–277] Fruit head diam including fruit beaks; fruit body lengths except beak, stalk-like base; beak lengths including stigmas.
Unabridged references: [Cook & Nicholls 1986 Bot Helv 96:213–267, 1987 Bot Helv 97:1–44]
Plants generally aquatic, limp, <= 2.5 m, distally floating, occasionally terrestrial and erect to emergent, to ± 35 cm. Leaf: widest blades 1–5 mm wide, ± flat, or convex, or generally some obscurely 3-angled or keeled. Inflorescence: emergent; main axis branches 0; staminate heads 3–4(5), crowded in flower; pistillate heads 1–3, proximal in axils, peduncled, distal sessile, 1.5–2 cm diam in fruit. Flower: perianth parts not dark-thickened distally; stigma (0.6)0.8–1.5 mm. Fruit: body 3–4 mm, 1.5–2 mm wide, ellipsoid to fusiform, distally tapered, beak 1.5–2.2 mm.
2n=30. Locally common. Shallow to deep, nutrient-poor water, lakes, ponds, streams, occasionally ± terrestrial; 1800–3100 m. Klamath Ranges, High Sierra Nevada; to Alaska, northeastern North America; circumboreal. Jun–Aug [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Sparganium angustifolium var. multipedunculatum (Morong) Brayshaw; Sparganium emersum var. multipedunculatum (Morong) Reveal; Sparganium multipedunculatum (Morong) Rydb.; Sparganium simplex var. multipedunculatum Morong]
Unabridged note: As some plants are intermediate between Sparganium angustifolium and Sparganium emersum in one or more defining characters and may be hybrids, it may be preferable to combine these 2 species under Sparganium emersum s.l. The 3-angled or keeled leaf blade shapes, presumably diagnostic of Sparganium emersum, are common in California plants that are otherwise typical of Sparganium angustifolium but are very difficult to see in many pressed specimens.
Previous taxon: Sparganium
Next taxon: Sparganium emersum
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 22 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Sparganium, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=45023, accessed on Jul 22 2014
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