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Robert E. Preston & Dennis W. Woodland

Annual, perennial herb [to shrub, soft-wooded tree], hairs stinging and not [glabrous]; monoecious or dioecious; wind-pollinated. Leaf: alternate or opposite, generally stipuled, petioled, blade often with translucent, raised dots due to crystals in epidermal cells. Inflorescence: axillary, 1-flowered or head-, raceme-, or panicle-like. Flower: generally unisexual, small, ± green; sepals generally 4–5, free to fused; petals 0. Staminate flower: stamens generally 4–5, opposite sepals, incurved in bud, reflexing suddenly when flower opens. Pistillate flower: ovary 1, superior, chamber 1, style 0–1, stigma 1, generally hair-tufted. Fruit: generally achene.
50 genera, 700 species: worldwide; some cultivated (Boehmeria, ramie; Pilea, clearweed). [Boufford 1997 FNANM 3:400–413] —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Miller 1971 J Arnold Arbor 52:40–68]

Key to Urticaceae


1 sp. (Captain J.F. Soleirol, collector especially in Corsica, 1781–1863)

S. soleirolii (Req.) Dandy
Annual 2–30 cm, stems prostrate, generally mat-forming, stinging hairs 0. Leaf: alternate, 3–8 mm, oblong to ± round, oblique, entire; crystals generally elongate. Inflorescence: flowers 1, subtended by 3 winged bractlets, lower pistillate, upper staminate. Staminate flower: sepals 4, ± free; stamens 4. Pistillate flower: sepals fused. Fruit: achene, 0.8–1 mm, ovoid, shiny, enclosed by calyx, bractlets.
2n=20. Damp, shaded places; < 215 m. Central Coast, San Francisco Bay Area, South Coast, s Channel Islands (San Nicolas Island); Baja California; native to Corsica, Sardinia. [Helxine soleirolii Req.] Ornamental, occasionally escaping from cultivation. Mar–Jun [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Soleirolia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora,, accessed on Nov 26 2015

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click for enlargement Soleirolia soleirolii
See CalPhotos for additional images
2001 Tony Morosco

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Soleirolia soleirolii Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.