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SOLANACEAE NIGHTSHADE FAMILY

Michael H. Nee

Annual to shrub. Leaf: generally simple, generally alternate, generally petioled; stipules 0; blade entire to deeply lobed. Inflorescence: various. Flower: bisexual; calyx lobes generally 5; corolla ± radial, cylindric to rotate, lobes generally 5; stamens 5, on corolla tube, alternate lobes; ovary superior, generally 2-chambered, style 1. Fruit: berry, loculicidal or septicidal capsule, [(drupe)], 2–5-chambered.
75 genera, 3000 species: worldwide, especially ± tropics; many alien weeds in California; many cultivated for food, drugs, or ornamental (potato, tomato, peppers, tobacco, petunia); many TOXIC. [Hunziker 2001 Genera Solanacearum. Koeltz Scientific Books] Nicandra physalodes (L.) Gaertn. is a waif. —Scientific Editor: Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Hunziker 2001 Genera Solanacearum: The Genera of Solanaceae Illustrated, Arranged According to a New System by A.T. Hunziker. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein, Germany]

Key to Solanaceae

SOLANUM NIGHTSHADE
Annual to shrub, vine or not, prickly or not, often glandular. Leaf: alternate to ± opposite, often unequal, entire to deeply pinnately lobed. Inflorescence: panicle or umbel-like, often 1-sided. Flower: calyx ± bell-shaped; corolla ± rotate, white to purple (yellow), lobes generally of different color toward base of midrib, generally without spots at base; anthers free, > filaments, oblong or tapered, opening by 2 pores or short slits near tip, in age often splitting to base; ovary 2-chambered, style 1, generally ± straight, stigma head-like. Fruit: berry, generally spheric, fleshy (or dry, capsule-like). Seed: many, compressed, generally reniform.
± 1500 species: worldwide, especially tropical America. (Latin: quieting, from narcotic properties) many TOXIC. Many cultivated for food (including potato, Solanum tuberosum), ornamental; Solanum dimidiatum <{Noxious weed}> in California an urban weed. See Lycopersicon for other taxa recently included here.
Unabridged references: [Nee, M. 1999. Synopsis of Solanum in the New World, pp. 285–333 in M. Nee, D.E. Symon, R.N. Lester & J.P. Jessop (eds.), Solanaceae IV, Advances in Biology and Utilization, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; Symon 1981 J Adelaide Bot Gard 4:1–367]

Key to Solanum

S. carolinense L. CAROLINA HORSE-NETTLE
NATURALIZED
Perennial herb 2–9 dm, from rhizome, little-branched; prickles slender, spreading; stellate hairs fine, generally sessile. Leaf: 5–15 cm, ovate, ± entire to wavy-lobed, teeth or lobes entire. Inflorescence: generally raceme-like. Flower: calyx 5–6 mm, lobes ± = tube; corolla 20–30 mm wide, generally pale violet (white); anthers 7–9 mm, ± equal. Fruit: 8–20 mm, yellow. Seed: ± 2.5 mm.
n=12. Uncommon. Disturbed places, fields, roadsides; < 200 m. s Outer North Coast Ranges, n Sierra Nevada, Great Central Valley, South Coast; native to central and eastern United States, northern Mexico. May–Aug {Noxious weed} [Online Interchange]

Previous taxon: Solanum aviculare
Next taxon: Solanum dimidiatum

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Dec 19 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Solanum, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=44835, accessed on Dec 19 2014

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click for enlargement Solanum carolinense
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2001 CDFA

Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Solanum carolinense Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.