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BRASSICACEAE (Cruciferae) MUSTARD FAMILY

Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz, except as noted

Annual to shrub; sap pungent, watery. Leaf: generally simple, alternate; generally both basal, cauline; stipules 0. Inflorescence: generally raceme, generally not bracted. Flower: bisexual, generally radial; sepals 4, generally free; petals (0)4, forming a cross, generally white or yellow to purple; stamens generally 6 (2 or 4), 4 long, 2 short (3 pairs of unequal length); ovary 1, superior, generally 2-chambered with septum connecting 2 parietal placentas; style 1, stigma entire or 2-lobed. Fruit: capsule, generally 2-valved, "silique" (length >= 3 × width) or "silicle" (length < 3 × width), dehiscent by 2 valves or indehiscent, cylindric or flat parallel or perpendicular to septum, segmented or not. Seed: 1–many, in 1 or 2 rows per chamber, winged or wingless; embryo strongly curved.
± 330 genera, 3780 species: worldwide, especially temperate. [Al-Shehbaz et al. 2006 Plant Syst Evol 259:89–120] Highest diversity in Mediterranean area, mountains of southwestern Asia, adjacent central Asia, western North America; some Brassica species are oil or vegetable crops; Arabidopsis thaliana used in experimental molecular biology; many species are ornamentals, weeds. Aurinia saxatilis (L.) Desvaux in cultivation only. Aubrieta occasional waif in central North Coast Ranges, Carrichtera annua (L.) DC. in South Coast, Iberis sempervirens L., Iberis umbellata L. in Peninsular Ranges, Teesdalia coronopifolia (Bergeret) Thell., Teesdalia nudicaulis (L.) W.T. Aiton in southern Outer North Coast Ranges, Central Coast. Cardaria, Coronopus moved to Lepidium; Caulostramina to Hesperidanthus; Guillenia to Caulanthus; Heterodraba to Athysanus; California taxa of Lesquerella to Physaria; Malcolmia africana to Strigosella. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.

Key to Brassicaceae

SINAPIS
Annual [perennial herb]; hairs 0 or simple. Leaf: basal not rosetted, petioled, dentate to 1- or 2-pinnately lobed; distal reduced, sessile or short-petioled, base not lobed. Inflorescence: elongated. Flower: sepals oblong to linear, spreading, base not sac-like; petals yellow, obovate, clawed. Fruit: silique, dehiscent, linear to lanceolate, cylindric, ± 4-angled, or flat parallel to septum, generally constricted between seeds, segmented; terminal segment 1- or 2-seeded or seeds 0; proximal segment few- to several-seeded, valves prominently 3–7-veined; stigma 2-lobed. Seed: 4–16(24), in 1 row, spheric, wingless.
5 species: Mediterranean, Eurasia. (Latin: mustard, from flavor of seeds)

Key to Sinapis

S. arvensis L. CHARLOCK
NATURALIZED
Stem: (0.5)2–10(21) dm, simple or branched, hairs spreading to reflexed, occasionally glabrous. Leaf: basal blade (3)4–18(25) cm, 1.5–5(7) cm wide, obovate to oblong or lanceolate, pinnately lobed; lateral lobes 1–4 pairs, dentate; cauline short-petioled (sessile), dentate. Flower: sepals (4.5)5–6(7) mm; petals (8)9–12(17) mm, (3)4–6(7.5) mm wide, yellow. Fruit: (1.5)2–4.5(5.7) cm, (1.5)2.5–3.5(4) mm wide; lower segment (0.6)1.2–3.5(4.3) cm; terminal segment seedless or 1-seeded; pedicel ascending, (2)3–7 mm. Seed: (1)1.5–2 mm wide.
2n=18. Disturbed areas; < 1800 m. California Floristic Province (except High Sierra Nevada); widespread North America, native to Eurasia. Mar–Oct {Weed listed by Cal-IPC} [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Brassica kaber (DC.) L.C. Wheeler]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 20 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Sinapis, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=44609, accessed on Oct 20 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Sinapis arvensis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.