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MALVACEAE MALLOW FAMILY

Steven R. Hill, except as noted

Annual to tree; generally with stellate hairs, often with bristles or peltate scales; juice generally mucilage-like; bark fibrous. Leaf: generally cauline, alternate, petioled, simple [palmate-compound], generally palmate-lobed and/or veined, generally toothed, evergreen or not; stipules persistent or not. Inflorescence: head, spike, raceme, or panicle, in panicle or not (a compound panicle), or flowers >= 1 in leaf axils, or flowers generally 1 opposite a leaf or on a spur; bracts leaf-like or not; bractlets 0 or on flowering stalks, often closely subtending calyx, generally in involucel. Flower: generally bisexual, radial; sepals 5, generally fused at base, abutting in bud, larger in fruit or not, nectaries as tufts of glandular hairs at base; petals (0)5, free from each other but generally fused at base to, falling with filament tube, clawed or not; stamens 5–many, filaments fused for most of length into tube around style, staminodes 5, alternate stamens, or generally 0; pistil 1, ovary superior, stalked or generally not, chambers generally >= 5, styles or style branches, stigmas generally 1 or 1–2 × chamber number. Fruit: loculicidal capsule, [berry], or 5–many, disk- or wedge-shaped segments (= mericarps).
266 genera, 4025 species: worldwide, especially warm regions; some cultivated (e.g., Abelmoschus okra; Alcea hollyhock; Gossypium cotton; Hibiscus hibiscus). [Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 1998 Ann Missouri Bot Gard 85:531–553] Recently treated to include Bombacaceae, Sterculiaceae, Tiliaceae. Mature fruit needed for identification; "outer edges" are surfaces between sides and back (abaxial surface) of segment. "Flower stalk" used instead of "pedicel," "peduncle," especially where both needed (i.e., when flowers both 1 in leaf axils and otherwise). —Scientific Editors: Steven R. Hill, Thomas J. Rosatti.
Unabridged references: [Alverson et al. 1999 Amer J Bot 86:1474–1486; Bayer et al. 1999 Bot J Linn Soc 129:267–303; Hill 2009 Madroño 56:104–111]

Key to Malvaceae

SIDA

Steven R. Hill

Annual [perennial herb, shrub], [glabrous or] hairy. Leaf: petioled to subsessile; blade generally unlobed (to palmate-lobed), generally dentate. Inflorescence: flowers 1–several in leaf axils; flowering stalks often jointed; bractlets 0. Flower: petals pale- to orange-yellow [white]; stigmas head-like. Fruit: segments generally 5–15, indehiscent, side walls firm, persistent, beaks generally 2, prominent. Seed: 1 per segment, not enclosed by net-veined envelope.
150 species: tropics, subtropics, especially America. (Greek: used by Theophrastus for other plant, applied to these by Linnaeus) [Fryxell 1988 Syst Bot Monogr 25:373–412] Sida abutifolia Mill. reported as possibly naturalized in California.

Key to Sida

S. spinosa L. PRICKLY SIDA
AGRICULTURAL WEED
Annual, stellate-puberulent. Stem: 3–10 dm, stiff, straight, branches ascending. Leaf: blade 2–4 cm, serrate, minutely stellate-puberulent, paler abaxially, glabrous adaxially. Inflorescence: flowers 1–several in leaf axils. Flower: calyx 5–7 mm, puberulent; petals ± 5 mm, > calyx; filament tube 2 mm, glabrous; styles 5, stigmas head-like. Fruit: 4–5 mm diam, ± glabrous.
2n=14,28. Scarce; in disturbed places, fields; generally < 300 m. San Joaquin Valley; southern, central and eastern United States to southern South America; widely introduced worldwide. Generally an agricultural weed; often grows with Hibiscus trionum, Gossypium; apparently reported from Fresno County; included as a possible waif, despite apparent lack of specimens from California, due to likelihood of occurrence there. Jun–Oct?

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Sep 21 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Sida, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=44401, accessed on Sep 21 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Sida spinosa Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.