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POACEAE (Gramineae) GRASS FAMILY

James P. Smith, Jr., except as noted

Annual to woody perennial herb; roots generally fibrous. Stem: generally round, hollow; nodes swollen, solid. Leaf: alternate, 2-ranked, generally linear, parallel-veined; sheath generally open; ligule membranous or hairy, at blade base. Inflorescence: various (of generally many spikelets). Spikelet: glumes generally 2; florets (lemma, palea, flower) 1–many; lemma generally membranous, sometimes glume-like; palea generally ± transparent, ± enclosed by lemma. Flower: generally bisexual, minute; perianth vestigial; stamens generally 3; stigmas generally 2, generally plumose. Fruit: grain, sometimes achene- or utricle-like.
650–900 genera; ± 10550 species: worldwide; greatest economic importance of any family (wheat, rice, maize, millet, sorghum, sugar cane, forage crops, ornamental, weeds; thatching, weaving, building materials). [Barkworth et al. 2003 FNANM:25; Barkworth et al. 2007 FNANM:24] Generally wind-pollinated. Achnatherum, Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Nassella, Piptatherum, Piptochaetium, Ptilagrostis moved to Stipa; Elytrigia, Leymus, Pascopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Taeniatherum to Elymus; Hierochloe to Anthoxanthum; Lolium, Vulpia to Festuca; Lycurus to Muhlenbergia; Monanthochloe to Distichlis; Pleuraphis to Hilaria; Rhynchelytrum to Melinis. The following taxa (in genera not included here), recorded in California from historical collections or reported in literature, are extirpated, lacking vouchers, or not considered naturalized: Acrachne racemosa (Roth) Ohwi, Allolepis texana (Vasey) Soderstr. & H.F. Decker, Amphibromus nervosus (Hook. f.) Baill., Axonopus affinis Chase, Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kuhlm., Coix lacryma-jobi L., Cutandia memphitica (Spreng.) K. Richt., Dinebra retroflexa (Vahl) Panz., Eremochloa ciliaris (L.) Merr., Eustachys distichophylla (Lag.) Nees, Gaudinia fragilis (L.) P. Beauv., Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Neyraudia arundinacea (L.) Henrard, Phyllostachys aurea Rivière & C. Rivière, Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zuccarini, Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour.) Clayton, Schedonnardus paniculatus (Nutt.) Branner & Coville, Schizachyrium cirratum (Hack.) Wooton & Standl., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Themeda quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, Thysanolaena latifolia (Hornem.) Honda, Tribolium obliterum (Hemsl.) Renvoize, Zea mays L., Zizania palustris L. var. interior (Fassett) Dore, Zoysia japonica Steud. Paspalum pubiflorum E. Fourn., Paspalum quadrifarium Lam., are now reported for southern California (J Bot Res Inst Texas 4:761–770). See Glossary p. 30 for illustrations of general family characteristics. —Scientific Editors: James P. Smith, Jr., J. Travis Columbus, Dieter H. Wilken.
Unabridged references: [Hitchcock 1951 Manual grasses US, USDA Misc Publ 200; Clayton & Renvoise 1986 Kew Bull Add Series 13]

Key to Poaceae

SETARIA BRISTLE GRASS

Robert E. Preston & Robert Webster

Annual, perennial herb. Stem: generally erect; internode solid to hollow inside. Leaf: basal and cauline; sheath generally glabrous, margins occasionally scabrous or ciliate; ligule short-hairy or membranous, ciliate; blade glabrous, scabrous, or hairy on one or both surfaces. Inflorescence: panicle-like, dense, generally cylindric; 1° branches spreading to appressed; spikelets many, generally clustered on one side of short 2° branches, short-stalked to subsessile, subtended by 1–15 bristles, bristles generally scabrous. Spikelet: falling as 1 unit, generally elliptic; glumes unequal; florets generally 2, ± equal, lower floret sterile or staminate, palea generally < lemma, upper floret fertile, firm, generally hard, rough, margin inrolled, tip blunt.
± 140 species: warm temperate, tropical Eurasia, Africa. (Latin: bristly) [Rominger 2003 FNANM 25:539–558] Some species cultivated for food. Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv., millet, common component of birdseed, occasionally collected but not persisting. Setaria megaphylla (Steud.) T. Durand & Schinz, Setaria verticilliformis Dumort. recorded in California from a few sites, but do not appear to be naturalized.

Key to Setaria

S. viridis (L.) P. Beauv. GREEN BRISTLE GRASS
NATURALIZED
Annual. Stem: decumbent to erect, 2–10 dm. Leaf: sheath 5–15 cm, scabrous, upper margins ciliate; ligule 1–2 mm; blade 8–20 cm, 3–12 mm wide, upper surface glabrous. Inflorescence: 2–15 cm; 1° branches 3–10 mm, glabrous or hairy; bristles 1–3; spikelet stalk < 0.5 mm. Spikelet: ± 2 mm, ± 1 mm wide; lower glume ± 1 mm, 3-veined, upper glume = spikelet length; lower floret sterile; lemma 5-veined, tip acute; palea vestigial.
2n=18. Moist, disturbed areas, roadsides, streambanks; < 1525 m. Northwestern California (except High North Coast Ranges), Cascade Range Foothills, Sierra Nevada (except s High Sierra Nevada, Tehachapi Mountain Area), Great Central Valley, San Francisco Bay Area, Outer South Coast Ranges, Southwestern California (except Channel Islands), East of Sierra Nevada, sw Mojave Desert, Sonoran Desert (Coachella, Imperial, Palo Verde valleys); widespread North America; native to Eurasia. May–Oct [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 25 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Setaria, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=44277, accessed on Nov 25 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Setaria viridis Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.