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FABACEAE (Leguminosae) LEGUME FAMILY

Martin F. Wojciechowski, except as noted

Annual to tree. Leaf: generally alternate, generally compound, generally stipuled, generally entire, pinnately veined Inflorescence: generally raceme, spike, umbel or head; or flowers 1–few in axils. Flower: generally bisexual, generally bilateral; hypanthium 0 or flat to tubular; sepals generally 5, generally fused; petals generally 5, free, fused, or lower 2 ± united into keel (see 3, Key to Groups, for banner, wings); stamens 10 or many (or [1], 5, 6, 7, 9), free or fused or 10 with 9 filaments at least partly fused, 1 (uppermost) free; pistil 1, ovary superior, generally 1-chambered, ovules 1–many, style, stigma 1. Fruit: legume, including a stalk-like base (above receptacle) or not. Seed: 1–many, often ± reniform, generally hard, smooth.
± 730 genera, 19400 species: worldwide; with grasses, requisite in agriculture, most natural ecosystems. Many cultivated, most importantly Arachis, peanut; Glycine, soybean; Phaseolus, beans; Medicago, alfalfa; Trifolium, clovers; many orns. [Lewis et al. (eds) 2005 Legumes of the World. RBG, Kew] Unless stated otherwise, fruit length including stalk-like base, number of 2° leaflets is per 1° leaflet. Upper suture of fruit adaxial, lower abaxial. Anthyllis vulneraria L. evidently a waif, a contaminant of legume seed from Europe. Laburnum anagyroides Medik., collected on Mount St. Helena in 1987, may be naturalized. Ceratonia siliqua L., carob tree (Group 2), differs from Gleditsia triacanthos L. in having evergreen (vs deciduous) leaves that are 1-pinnate (vs 1-pinnate on spurs on old stems, 2-pinnate on new stems) with 2–5(8) (vs 7–17) 1° leaflets, commonly cultivated, now naturalized in southern California. Aeschynomene rudis Benth. <Noxious weed>, Halimodendron halodendron (Pall.) Voss <Noxious weed> (possibly extirpated), Lens culinaris Medik. are agricultural weeds. Caragana arborescens Lam. only cultivated. Ononis alopecuroides L. <Noxious weed>, Sphaerophysa salsula (Pall.) DC. <Noxious weed> all evidently extirpated. Cercidium moved to Parkinsonia; Chamaecytisus to Cytisus; Psoralidium lanceolatum to Ladeania. —Scientific Editors: Martin F. Wojciechowski, Thomas J. Rosatti.

Key to Fabaceae

SENNA

Martin F. Wojciechowski & Elizabeth McClintock

Perennial herb to tree, unarmed or main leaf axis a weak spine at tip or branches a weak thorn at tip. Leaf: even-1-pinnate, alternate; stipules small or not, ephemeral or not; leaflets 4–20(36). Inflorescence: axillary or terminal, raceme or panicle. Flower: generally ± bilateral, generally showy; sepals ± free; petals free, generally yellow; stamens free, 7 fertile, 3 sterile, or 10 fertile, anthers generally > filaments, opening by terminal pores. Fruit: dehiscent or not. Seed: few to many.
± 300 species: tropics, especially America, Africa, Australia, also warm temperate, deserts. (Arabic: Sana) [Randell & Barlow 1998 Fl Australia 12:89–138] Some cultivated as orns; dried leaves of some cathartic, laxative.
Unabridged references: [Irwin & Barneby 1982 Mem New York Bot Gard 35:1–918; Randell & Barlow 1998 Fl Australia 12:89–138]

Key to Senna

S. marilandica (L.) Link MARYLAND SENNA
WAIF
Subshrub, glabrous. Stem: generally unbranched, 6–20 dm. Leaf: stipules herbaceous, lanceolate, ephemeral; leaflets 12–18, 35–60 mm, 9–24 mm wide, elliptic to oblong, abaxially paler, ± glaucous, adaxially dull olive-green. Inflorescence: axillary or terminal, raceme, generally 5–15-flowered. Flower: nodding; sepals unequal, 4–8.5 mm; petals 8–14 mm, unequal, yellow drying ± white, glabrous. Fruit: gently curved out, down from erect pedicel; slowly dehiscent, 6–11 cm, linear, oblong, compressed, glabrous, in age dark. Seed: 20–26, generally plump-obovate.
Open woodland, disturbed areas; < 100 m. South Coast; widespread over central and southeastern United States. [Cassia marilandica L.] May–Jun [Online Interchange]

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Oct 25 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Senna, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=44150, accessed on Oct 25 2014

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Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Senna marilandica Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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map of distribution 1
(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).

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Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.