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Annual to shrub [tree, vine], glabrous to hairy, generally aromatic. Stem: generally erect, generally 4-angled. Leaf: generally simple to deeply lobed, generally opposite, generally gland-dotted. Inflorescence: generally cymes, generally many in dense axillary clusters surrounding stem, generally separated by evident internodes or collectively crowded, spike- or panicle-like, occasionally head-like or raceme, subtended by leaves or bracts; flowers sessile or pedicelled. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx generally 5-lobed, radial to bilateral; corolla generally bilateral, 1–2-lipped, upper lip entire or 2-lobed, ± flat to hood-like, occasionally 0, lower lip generally 3-lobed; stamens generally 4, epipetalous, generally exserted, paired, pairs generally unequal, occasionally 2, staminodes 2 or 0; ovary superior, generally 4-lobed to base chambers 2, ovules 2 per chamber, style 1, generally arising from center at junction of lobes, stigmas generally 2. Fruit: generally 4 nutlets, generally ovoid to oblong, smooth.
± 230 genera, 7200 species: worldwide. Many cultivated for herbs, oils (Lavandula, lavender; Mentha, mint; Rosmarinus, rosemary; Thymus, thyme), some cultivated as ornamental (in California Cedronella, Leonotis, Monarda, Phlomis). [Harley et al. 2004 Fam Generally Vasc Plant 7:167–275] Moluccella laevis L., shell flower, historical waif in California. Satureja calamintha (L.) Scheele subsp. ascendens (Jordan) Briq. reported as alien but not naturalized. Salazaria moved to Scutellaria; California Hyptis moved to Condea, California Satureja moved to Clinopodium. —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Key to Lamiaceae
Perennial herb or shrub, generally hairy, occasionally glandular, from rhizomes or tubers. Stem: erect, branched or not. Leaf: basal and cauline; proximal generally petioled; distal cauline ± sessile. Inflorescence: flower 1–2 per leaf axil, or appearing as a bracted raceme. Flower: calyx 2-lipped, lips ± equal, enclosing nutlets, back of upper lip dome-like or transversely ridged, generally concave-depressed behind ridge; corolla 2-lipped, white to violet-blue, upper lip < lower, ± entire, hood-like, lower lip 3-lobed; stamens 4, pairs ± equal, enclosed by upper corolla lip, anthers ciliate, lower 2 1-chambered; disk below ovary generally green-yellow. Fruit: generally ovoid, generally minutely papillate, brown or black.Key to Scutellaria
± 300 species: generally temperate worldwide. (Latin: tray, from calyx dome or ridge) [Olmstead 1990 Contr Univ Michigan Herb 17:223–265] Salazaria occasionally treated as separate genus.
Unabridged references: [Paton 1990 Kew Bull 45:399–450; Wagstaff et al. 1998 Plant Syst Evol 209:265–274]
Plant 15–40 cm; rhizomes slender, tip ± swollen. Stem: hairs << 0.5 mm, appressed-ascending, occasionally gland-tipped. Leaf: basal petioles 5–10 mm; distal cauline blades ovate to oblong, entire, bases obtuse to wedge-shaped, tips rounded. Flower: pedicel 3.5–4.5 mm; calyx 3.5–5 mm, ridged; corolla 16–19 mm, white to light yellow, occasionally tinged pink or blue, lower lip not spotted. Fruit: black.
Open sites, scrub, woodland; 50–2200 m. Klamath Ranges, North Coast Ranges, Cascade Range Foothills, n Sierra Nevada, San Francisco Bay Area. Hybridizes with Scutellaria antirrhinoides in North Coast Ranges. Jun–Jul [Online Interchange]
Previous taxon: Scutellaria bolanderi subsp. bolanderi
Next taxon: Scutellaria galericulata
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Jul 23 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Scutellaria, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=43883, accessed on Jul 23 2014
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© 2003 Steve Matson
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