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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
Annual to tree, generally glandular, some ± aquatic.
Stem: round to square in ×-section.
Leaf: simple, generally alternate, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0 (present in Limosella).
Inflorescence: spike to panicle ( head-like), generally bracted, or flowers 1–4 in axils.
Flower: generally bisexual; calyx lobes 4–5; corolla bilateral to radial, lobes 4–5; stamens epipetalous, 4–5, 5th a staminode in Scrophularia; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2.
Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal, or drupe-like.
± 65 genera, 1700 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (Verbascum). [Olmstead et al. 2001 Amer J Bot 88:348–361] Other taxa moved to Plantaginaceae (Antirrhinum, Bacopa, Collinsia, Cymbalaria, Digitalis, Dopatrium, Gambelia, Gratiola, Hebe, Holmgrenanthe, Keckiella, Kickxia, Limnophila, Linaria, Lindernia, Maurandella, Mohavea, Nothochelone, Penstemon, Pseudorontium, Stemodia, Synthyris, Tonella, Veronica), Orobanchaceae (Bellardia, Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Parentucellia, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus). —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Albach et al. 2005 Amer J Bot 92:297–315]
Key to Scrophulariaceae
Annual, perennial herb, subshrub, erect, generally glandular-puberulent to -hairy.Key to Scrophularia
Stem: square in ×-section; (15)70–180 cm.
Leaf: petioled; opposite, pairs at right angles to each other, lanceolate to triangular- ovate, serrate, dentate, or deeply cut, dark to light green, yellow-green, or gray-green (dull green), base cordate to truncate or occasionally ± wedge-shaped.
Inflorescence: generally panicle of cymes, occasionally axillary cymes or flower 1; axes, pedicels generally slender, occasionally glabrous.
Flower: calyx lobes 5, 2–4 mm, triangular- ovate to lanceolate, acuminate to acute or rounded, green, persistent, margins scarious or not; corolla 6–14 mm, inflated proximally, generally 2-colored, upper lip 2-lobed, generally darker than lower, lower lip < upper, 3-lobed, middle lobe reflexed, lateral lobes erect, mouth constricted; fertile stamens 4, included, 2 generally longer; staminode 0 or proximally fused to corolla, much- reduced, or elongated with expanded tip; stigma head-like or 2-lobed; nectary disk fleshy, at ovary base.
Seed: oblong-ovoid, ridged.
150–200 species: North America, temperate Asia, Medit. (Latin: associated with the disease scrofula) [Shaw 1962 Aliso 5:147–178]
Unabridged etymology: (Latin: associated with the disease scrofula by the doctrine of signatures)
Perennial, shrubby in age; occasionally glandular-long-soft-hairy.
Stem: 120–180 cm.
Leaf: larger blades 8–15 cm, dark to light green.
Inflorescence: axes, pedicels glandular-long-soft-hairy.
Flower: calyx lobes 3 mm, triangular- ovate, green, tip acute to rounded, margins generally scarious; corolla 8–11 mm, upper lobes dark maroon to ± black, lower lobes paler, mouth ± constricted; staminode an awn-like rudiment or lacking; stigma lobes 2, ± spreading.
Canyon bottoms, coastal scrub, chaparral; < 400 m. s Channel Islands (Santa Catalina, San Clemente islands);
Previous taxon: Scrophularia peregrina
Next taxon: Verbascum
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) [year] Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html [accessed on month, day, year]
Citation for an individual treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] [year]. [Taxon name] in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, [URL for treatment]. Accessed on [month, day, year].
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|Bioregions in which taxon occurs||Red area (if present) is the part of the bioregion lying between the upper and lower elevation limits of the taxon;|
markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
Chart based on elevation range in Manual and elevations and coordinates of CCH records.
Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
Note: About half of the CCH records include both elevation and coordinates.
|Map made in collaboration with Scott Loarie. Data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria.
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