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Key to families | Table of families and genera
Indexes to all accepted names and synonyms:
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Annual to tree, generally glandular, some ± aquatic. Stem: round to square in ×-section. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0 (present in Limosella). Inflorescence: spike to panicle (head-like), generally bracted, or flowers 1–4 in axils. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx lobes 4–5; corolla bilateral to radial, lobes 4–5; stamens epipetalous, 4–5, 5th a staminode in Scrophularia; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal, or drupe-like.
± 65 genera, 1700 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (Verbascum). [Olmstead et al. 2001 Amer J Bot 88:348–361] Other taxa moved to Plantaginaceae (Antirrhinum, Bacopa, Collinsia, Cymbalaria, Digitalis, Dopatrium, Gambelia, Gratiola, Hebe, Holmgrenanthe, Keckiella, Kickxia, Limnophila, Linaria, Lindernia, Maurandella, Mohavea, Nothochelone, Penstemon, Pseudorontium, Stemodia, Synthyris, Tonella, Veronica), Orobanchaceae (Bellardia, Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Parentucellia, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus). —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Albach et al. 2005 Amer J Bot 92:297–315]
Key to Scrophulariaceae
Annual, perennial herb, subshrub, erect, generally glandular-puberulent to -hairy. Stem: square in ×-section; (15)70–180 cm. Leaf: petioled; opposite, pairs at right angles to each other, lanceolate to triangular-ovate, serrate, dentate, or deeply cut, dark to light green, yellow-green, or gray-green (dull green), base cordate to truncate or occasionally ± wedge-shaped. Inflorescence: generally panicle of cymes, occasionally axillary cymes or flower 1; axes, pedicels generally slender, occasionally glabrous. Flower: calyx lobes 5, 2–4 mm, triangular-ovate to lanceolate, acuminate to acute or rounded, green, persistent, margins scarious or not; corolla 6–14 mm, inflated proximally, generally 2-colored, upper lip 2-lobed, generally darker than lower, lower lip < upper, 3-lobed, middle lobe reflexed, lateral lobes erect, mouth constricted; fertile stamens 4, included, 2 generally longer; staminode 0 or proximally fused to corolla, much-reduced, or elongated with expanded tip; stigma head-like or 2-lobed; nectary disk fleshy, at ovary base. Fruit: septicidal. Seed: oblong-ovoid, ridged.Key to Scrophularia
150–200 species: North America, temperate Asia, Mediterranean. (Latin: associated with the disease scrofula) [Shaw 1962 Aliso 5:147–178]
Unabridged etymology: (Latin: associated with the disease scrofula by the doctrine of signatures)
Perennial herb. Stem: 80–120 cm. Leaf: larger blades 8–17 cm, dark to light green, base cordate to truncate, occasionally ± wedge-shaped. Inflorescence: axes, pedicels glandular-puberulent. Flower: calyx lobes 3–4 mm, triangular-ovate, green, tip acute to rounded, margins generally scarious; corolla 8–12 mm, inflated, mouth ± constricted, upper lobes red to maroon, lower paler or ± yellow-green; staminode tip club-shaped to obovate; stigma head-like.
Common; damp places, chaparral, roadsides; < 2500 m. California Floristic Province; to British Columbia, Arizona. [Scrophularia californica subsp. floribunda (Greene) R.J. Shaw] Variable, study needed. Mar–Jul [Online Interchange]
Unabridged synonyms: [Scrophularia californica subsp. californica]
Unabridged note: Plants in Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, treated as Scrophularia californica or Scrophularia oregana Pennell.
Previous taxon: Scrophularia atrata
Next taxon: Scrophularia desertorum
Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Nov 26 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2013. Scrophularia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=43849, accessed on Nov 26 2014
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|Geographic subdivisions indicated for the distribution of Scrophularia californica|| Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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(Note: any qualifiers in the taxon distribution description, such as 'northern', 'southern', 'adjacent' etc., are not reflected in the map above, and in some cases indication of a taxon in a subdivision is based on a single collection or author-verified occurence).
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