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SCROPHULARIACEAE FIGWORT FAMILY

Margriet Wetherwax, except as noted

Annual to tree, generally glandular, some ± aquatic. Stem: round to square in ×-section. Leaf: simple, generally alternate, generally ± entire; stipules generally 0 (present in Limosella). Inflorescence: spike to panicle (head-like), generally bracted, or flowers 1–4 in axils. Flower: generally bisexual; calyx lobes 4–5; corolla bilateral to radial, lobes 4–5; stamens epipetalous, 4–5, 5th a staminode in Scrophularia; pistil 1, ovary superior, chambers generally 2, placentas axile, style 1, stigma lobes generally 2. Fruit: capsule, generally ± ovoid, loculicidal or septicidal, or drupe-like.
± 65 genera, 1700 species: ± worldwide; some cultivated as ornamental (Verbascum). [Olmstead et al. 2001 Amer J Bot 88:348–361] Other taxa moved to Plantaginaceae (Antirrhinum, Bacopa, Collinsia, Cymbalaria, Digitalis, Dopatrium, Gambelia, Gratiola, Hebe, Holmgrenanthe, Keckiella, Kickxia, Limnophila, Linaria, Lindernia, Maurandella, Mohavea, Nothochelone, Penstemon, Pseudorontium, Stemodia, Synthyris, Tonella, Veronica), Orobanchaceae (Bellardia, Castilleja, Cordylanthus, Orthocarpus, Parentucellia, Pedicularis, Triphysaria), Phrymaceae (Mimulus). —Scientific Editors: Douglas H. Goldman, Bruce G. Baldwin.
Unabridged references: [Albach et al. 2005 Amer J Bot 92:297–315]

Key to Scrophulariaceae

SCROPHULARIA FIGWORT

Kim R. Kersh

Annual, perennial herb, subshrub, erect, generally glandular-puberulent to -hairy. Stem: square in ×-section; (15)70–180 cm. Leaf: petioled; opposite, pairs at right angles to each other, lanceolate to triangular-ovate, serrate, dentate, or deeply cut, dark to light green, yellow-green, or gray-green (dull green), base cordate to truncate or occasionally ± wedge-shaped. Inflorescence: generally panicle of cymes, occasionally axillary cymes or flower 1; axes, pedicels generally slender, occasionally glabrous. Flower: calyx lobes 5, 2–4 mm, triangular-ovate to lanceolate, acuminate to acute or rounded, green, persistent, margins scarious or not; corolla 6–14 mm, inflated proximally, generally 2-colored, upper lip 2-lobed, generally darker than lower, lower lip < upper, 3-lobed, middle lobe reflexed, lateral lobes erect, mouth constricted; fertile stamens 4, included, 2 generally longer; staminode 0 or proximally fused to corolla, much-reduced, or elongated with expanded tip; stigma head-like or 2-lobed; nectary disk fleshy, at ovary base. Fruit: septicidal. Seed: oblong-ovoid, ridged.
150–200 species: North America, temperate Asia, Mediterranean. (Latin: associated with the disease scrofula) [Shaw 1962 Aliso 5:147–178]
Unabridged etymology: (Latin: associated with the disease scrofula by the doctrine of signatures)

Key to Scrophularia

S. atrata Pennell BLACK-FLOWERED FIGWORT
NATIVE
Perennial herb. Stem: 100–150 cm. Leaf: larger blades 6–9(11) cm, dark to light green. Inflorescence: axes, pedicels glandular-puberulent to -hairy. Flower: calyx lobes 3 mm, triangular-ovate, green, tip acute to rounded, margins generally scarious; corolla 9–11 mm, appearing much-inflated, dark red to ± black, mouth much-constricted; staminode tip triangular; stigma head-like.
Calcium-, diatom-rich soils; < 400 m. Central Coast, Outer South Coast Ranges (Santa Barbara, s San Luis Obispo cos.). Apr–Jul [Online Interchange] {CNPS list}

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Citation for the whole project: Jepson Flora Project (eds.) 2013. Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/IJM.html, accessed on Apr 20 2014
Citation for this treatment: [Author of taxon treatment] 2012. Scrophularia, in Jepson Flora Project (eds.) Jepson eFlora, http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_IJM.pl?tid=43847, accessed on Apr 20 2014

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click for enlargement Scrophularia atrata
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© 2012 Chris Winchell

Bioregions in which Scrophularia atrata occurs Markers link to CCH specimen records. If the markers are obscured, reload the page [or change window size and reload]. Yellow markers indicate records that may provide evidence for eFlora range revision or may have georeferencing or identification issues.
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CCH collections by month

Duplicates counted once; synonyms included.
Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa.
Blue line denotes eFlora flowering time.